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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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BUCKINGHAMSHIRE ! 




ft SDort filstorp, • 
toitl) Genealogies ana 
Current Biographies. 



NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Edited by JOHN GRANT. 



Published only for Subscribers ; 

in Cioo Volumes, Price £6 6s. per Set 



1911. 



THE LONDON & PROVINCIAL PUBLISHING Co., Ltd., 
84, Hatton Garden, London, E.C. 



Contents. 



County Article 

Yeomanry Article 

The Right Hon. the Baron Rothschild, P.C., G.C.V.O., 
Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire 

The Right Hon. The Baron Addington, J. P., M.A. 

The late Sir John Aird, Bt., J. P. ... 

Henry Eden Allhusen, Esq., B.A., D.L., J. P. ... 

Miss Andrewes, of Maids' Morton Manor 

Waldorf Astor, Esq. 

Lieut. -Colonel Francis Tyringham Higgins Bernard, M.A 
T P 

Colonel William Edward Blewitt, C.B., C.M.G. 

John Irvine Boswell, Esq., M.D., J. P. 



3 1 

63 
67 

73 
75 
79 
83 

87 
9i 
93 



Lieut-Colonel Wentworth Grenville Atkins-Bowyer, R.E 
(Retired) J. P. ... 

Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, Bt., M.A., M.D 
M.R.C.S., F.R.C.P. 

John Mitchell Bruce, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S 

LVJL • L 1 • ••• ••• • • • i 

The Right Hon. The Earl of Buckinghamshire, D.L., J.P.. 
Lieut. -Colonel Henry Edward Burney, J. P. 



The Right Hon. The Baron Burnham, K.C.V.O., D.L., J.P. 
Mrs. Burton, of Upton Court 



Ernest Callard, Esq. 

William Walter Carlile, Esq., D.L., J.P. 

The Right Hon. The Earl Carnngton, K.G., P.C., G.C.M.G 

George Carrington, Esq., J. P., B.A.... 

The Right Hon. The Baron Chesham 

Sir William Robert Clayton, Bt., D.L., J. P., M.A. 

Thomas Somers Vernon Cocks, Esq., B.A. 

The Right Hon. The Baron Cottesloe, D.L., J. P., M.A. 

Sir Charles Alfred Cripps, K.C.V.O., K.C., M.P., B.C.L 
M.A., J.P. 



95 
99 

103 

105 
11? 
119 

125 
127 

129 

J 33 
137 
139 

141 

H3 
H5 

147 



Sir John Lindsay Dashwood, Premier Baronet of Great 

Britain. ... ... ... ... 151 

The Right Hon. The Baron Decies, D.S.O. ... ... 159 

Major James Bogle Delap, J. P. ... ... ... 161 

The Right Hon. The Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.L., 

J.P. ... ... ... ... 165 

The Right Hon. The Baron Devonport, P.C., D.L., J.P. ... 173 

Coningsby Ralph Disraeli, Esq., D.L., J.P. ... ... 175 

William Wykeham Tyrwhitt-Drake, Esq., D.L., J.P. ... 181 

John Edward Montague Bradish-Ellames, Esq. ... 183 

Sir George Herbert Farrar, Bt., D.S.O. ... ... 185 

Sir Lancelot Aubrey Fletcher, Bt. ... ... ... 189 

John Bevill Fortescue, Esq., D.L., J.P., M.A. ... ... 193 

Lieut. -Colonel Liebert Edward Goodall, D.L., J.P. ... 199 

The Right Hon. The Baron Grenfell, P.C., G.C.B., 

G.C.M.G., F.S.A., J.P. ... ... ... 203 

Mrs. Henry Riversdale Grenfell, of Bacres ... ... 207 

Charles Seymour Grenfell, Esq., J.P. ... ... 209 

James Whitehouse Griffin, Esq. J.P. ... ... 211 

Robert Griffin, Esq., J.P. ... ... ... 213 



Mrs. Hall, of Foscott Manor ... ... ... 215 

George Hanbury, Esq., J. P. ... ... ... 217 

Vaughan Harley, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.P. ... ... 219 

Sir Robert Grenville Harvey, Bt., D.L. ... ... 221 

The Right Hon. Lord John Hay, G.C.B. ... ... 223 

Colonel John Herscliel, R.E., (Retired) F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ... 227 

Mrs. Napier Higgins, of Winchendon Priory ... ... 231 

General Sir George Went worth Alexander Higginson, 

G.C.B, J. P. ... ... ... ... 233 

Howard Henry Howard- Vyse, Esq, D.L, J. P. ... 235 

The Right Hun. The Earl Howe, G.C.V.O., J. P. ... 237 

The Baroness Kin loss, C.I. ... ... ... 239 

John Matthew Knapp, Esq, J. P., C.C, M.A. ... ... 241 

Captain William Henry Lambton ... ... ... 243 

The Right Hon. The Baron Lawrence, D.L, J. P., B.A. ... 245 

The Hon. Harry Lawson Webster Lawson, M.P, J. P., M.A. 249 

Mrs. Lee, of Hartwell House ... ... ... 253 

Arthur Hamilton Lee Esq, M.P. ... ... ... 255 

Rudolph Chambers Lehmann, Esq, J.P, M.A.... ... 257 

Sir Herbert Samuel Leon, Bt, J.P..., ... ... 259 



Arthur Lasenby Liberty, Esq., D.L., J. P., C.C. 

Lieut. -Colonel William John Levi, J. P. 

Richard William Selby-Lowndes, Esq. 

William Dalziel Mackenzie, Esq., D.L., J. P., M.A. 

Norman McCorquodale, Esq., J. P. ... 

Lieut. -Colonel Charles Meeking, J.P., M.A. ... 

Sydney Richardson Christie-Miller, Esq., M.A., J.P. 

Joseph Trueman Mills, Esq., D.L., J. P., 

Tonman Mosley, Esq., C.B., D.L., F.S.S., J.P. B.A. 

Francis Joseph Scott-Murray, Esq. 

The Right Hon. The Earl of Orkney, J.P. 

Major Charles Henry Dayrell Palmer 

Sir Everard Philip Digby Pauncefort-Duncombe, Bt. B.A. 

John William Garrett-Pegge, Esq., J.P. 

The Hon. Mrs. A. Douglas-Pennant 

Sir Berkeley Pigott, Bt. 

Vice-Admiral William Harvey Pigott, J.P. 

William Baring Du Pre, Esq., J.P. 

Charles Matthew Prior, Esq., J.P. ... 



Sir John William Ramsden, Bt., D.L., J. P., M 



A. 



263 

267 

269 

271 

279 

281 

283 

289 

291 

297 

299 

301 

3°5 
3°7 
3°9 
311 
3*3 
3 IQ - 
323 
327 



John Frecheville Ramsden, Esq., D.L. ... ... 333 

Abraham John Robarts, Esq., D.L. , J. P., B.A. ... ... 335 

James Shaw Robinson, Esq. ... ... ... 337 

Sir Philip Frederick Rose, Bt, D.L., J. P. .. ... 339 

The Right Hon. The Earl of Rosebery and Midlothian, 

K.C.,K.T.,P.C.,LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.B.A,F.S.A,J.P... 341 

Miss Alice Charlotte de Rothschild ... "... 343 

Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Esq., M.P., J. P. ... 345 

Sir Samuel Edward Scott, Bt., M.P., D.L. ... ... 347 

Alfred Walter Sykes, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.S., M.R.C.P., D.Sc. 349 

The Hon. William Frederick Danvers Smith, D.L., J. P., 

■m-J * **• ••• ••• • • a ••• S jl 

Harod William Swithinbank, Esq., F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., J.P. 353 

Pembroke Scott Stephens, Esq., K.C., J.P. ... ... 357 

The Right Hon. The Earl Temple, J. P., B.A. ... ... 359 

John Hicks Tempest, Esq., J.P. ... ... ... 361 

Henry Yates Thompson, Esq., F.R.G.S., J. P., B.A. ... 367 

Lieut. -Colonel Charles William Trotter ... ... 369 

William Francis Andrewes Uthwatt, Esq. ... ... 373 

Sir Harry Calvert Williams Verney, Bt., M.P., M.A., J.P. 379 

Edward Hanslope Watts, Esq., J. P., B.A. ... ... 385 

Thomas Owen Wethered, Esq., J.P. ... ... 389 



editorial note. 



In the preparation of this book, the Editor has been assisted 
by a staff of competent contributors, and the work of research has 
occupied a considerable period, during which inevitable changes 
have taken place in the County ; for instance, Lord Addington 
and Colonel Blewitt are non-residents in Buckinghamshire at 
the present time, Mr. Waldorf Astor represents Plymouth in the 
House of Commons ; while, among the regrettable losses made bythe 
hand of death this year must be numbered Sir John Aird and Sir 
Charles Robert Pigott. 



County Article 



Clx Countp- 



The Literary Side of Buckingamshire — Religion and Politics — 

Episodes of the Civil War— Early History — Quaint Feudal 

Tenures — Things Agricultural — The Chiltern Hundreds — 

Manufactures — The Story of the Townships — Local Legends, 

Customs and Terms, Origin of the Swan of Buckingham. 



CO the pastoral beauty of Buckinghamshire, English 
Literature stands permanently indebted. Memories of 
Milton cluster thick around the picturesque little villages 
of Horton and Chalfont St. Giles in the southern part of the 
County, the glowing, fairy-like beauty of the former, especially 
favoured by the nightingale, in all probability evoked those 
exquisite lines, beginning : — 

O Nightingale, that on yon bloomy spray 
Warblest at eve, when all the woods are still. 

Easily identified too are the "Meadows trim and daisies 
pied " of that district with those well-known lines in L' Allegro, 
which is believed to have been written in the five years succeeding 
Milton's stay at Cambridge, when he was resident here, together 
with Comus, Lycidas, and II Penseroso. 



To this day, in Chalfont St. Giles, an ancient cottage is 
proudly shown ; and — accredited with the honour of having 
sheltered the poet in 1665, when he returned once more to 
Buckinghamshire, to escape the plague, then raging in London, is 
now transformed into a Museum for Relics. In the Chalfont 
district, then the very centre of Puritan feeling in Buckinghamshire, 
Pavadise Lost was brought forth, and Paradise Regained conceived, 
the last, as Milton generously admitted, being the outcome of his 
Quaker friend, Ellwood's, suggestion : — " Thou hast said much 
here of Paradise Lost, but what hast thou to say of Paradise found ?" 
Needless to add the Museum above mentioned contains rare and 
ancient editions of the first, and a first edition of the second. 

Scarcely five miles from Horton as the crow flies, is Stoke 
Pogis, once the home of the poet Gray, and generally regarded as 
the scene of his Elegy, whilst only a mile further west are Burnham 
Beeches, since 1880 purchased by the Corporation of London for 
public use. Gray's eloquent description of their delights in a letter 
to Horace Walpole written in 1737, holds good today : — 

I have at the distance of half a mile, through a green lane, a 
forest (the vulgar call it a common) all my own, or at least as good 
as so, for I spy no human thing in it but myself. It is a little chaos 

of mountains and precipices vale and hill are covered with most 

venerable beeches that, like most other ancient people, are always 

dreaming out their old stories to the winds. 

Beaconsfield recalls the poet Waller, who, as lord of the 
manor, built a mansion there, and now sleeps within its churchyard 
beneath the shadow of a fine walnut tree. 

Through the generosity of Edmund Burke, whose connection 
with the now demolished Gregories is well known, the poet Crabbe 
was afforded a temporary home in the great statesman's 
Buckinhamshire home, and cheered and raised from the destitute 
condition of an unknown, unheard singer, to independence. 

Around Marlow many poets and men of letters made their 



abode, including Langley, the author of The Hundreds of Desborough, 
the poet Shelley, who composed the greater part of The Reroll of 
Islam lulled to the life of a recluse for the time being, cradled in 
his boat, on the bosom of the silvery Thames ; while Slough is as 
inseparably connected with the astronomical labours of the 
Herschels as the memory of Isaac Disraeli is with Bradenham. 

Perhaps Cowper, the poet of Olney, held the secret of so 
great an assemblage of famous names within the confines of one 
county, when he sang in The Task : — 

Nor rural sights alone, but rural sounds 
Exhilarate the spirit, and restore 
The tone of languid Nature. 

In the absolute peace of Olney, where, as the poei wrote : — 
" Occurrences here are as rare as cucumbers at Christmas " ; 
Cowper worked and songht to achieve his greatest object : — the 
amelioration of the social condition of its inhabitants. Judging by 
all accounts, they needed it. His red brick house still occupies its 
place in the old market square, and behind is the garden, with the 
summer house, the birthplace of John Gilpin, and where he kept his 
famous hares. Later, on his removal to Weston Underwood, about 
a mile away, Cowper's description may be taken as typical of the 
village at the present time : — 

"We dwell," he wrote, "in a neat and comfortable abode, in 
one of the prettiest villages in the kingdom. It affords opportunity 
for walking at all seasons, abounding in beautiful grass grounds 
which encompass it on all sides to a considerable distance. 
These grounds are skirted by woods of great extent." 

To complete the picture in the poet's words : — 

Here Ouse, slow winding through a level plain 
Of spacious meads with cattle sprinkled o'er, 

Conducts the eye along his sinuous course 
Delighted. 

A couplet on the window shutter of that house reveals the 
poet's heart-felt sorrow on being compelled to leave the home he 
had learnt to love in his latter days ; — 



Farewell, dear scenes, for ever closed to me ; 
Oh I for what sorrows must I now exchange ye. 

He had a presentiment lie would never look again on 

Western Underwood, which proved correct, for five years later, in 

1800, he passed from the world at East Dereham in Norfolk. 

Grendon Underwood, on the Western borders of Bucks, or 
in the old records, Grendon under Bernwood (from its position 
below the beginning of Bernwood Forest) enjoys a threefold 
distinction. The first connects Shakespeare with the village, 
alleging, according to some authorities, that he used to stay there 
on his way to and from London, and that Midsummer Night's 
Dream and Much Ado about Nothing first saw the light at Grendon. 
Other, and less ambitious variations of the tradition content 
themselves by stating that the original of Dogberry and Verges 
was to be found in the Grendon constable, who arrested 
Shakespeare for sleeping in the village church on one occasion. 
From this version of the story, the poet's funds would not appear 
to have permitted a night's lodging at an inn. At all events, 
halfway down the village is part of what was once the Ship Inn, 
and is now styled Shakespeare's House, the whole authority for the 
tradition appearing to consist in a statement of the Antiquarian 
Aubrey's to the effect that Shakespeare derived some of his humour 
in A Midsummer Night's Dream from the Grendon constable, whose 
acquaintance he chanced to make when breaking his journey there 
for a night, on his way to London. 

As the residence of Dr. George Lipscombe, the author of the 
well known History of Buckingham, Grendon achieves further 
distinction, although he, like that other distinguished historian 
and antiquary, the eccentric Browne Willis, the author of The 
History of the Town, Hundred and Deanery of Buckingham, made 
little profit out of his labours. Lipscombe died in poverty, at 
Quainton, and Browne Willis, a prolific writer, acknowledged that, 
with the exception of one book, he had found himself out of pocket. 



Grendon's third claim to fame is scarcely as flattering as the 
former ones : — 

Grendon Underwood 

The dirtiest town that ever stood 
runs a local, and it must be confessed, unmerited couplet. 

Seven Prime Ministers has Buckinghamshire given to 
England, including the great Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beacons- 
field. 

Religion and Politics have played a great part inthehistorv 
of the County from the time when John Wvcliffe was Rector of 
Ludgershallin 1368. His influence became manifest in 1413, when 
numerous Lollards laid down their lives for their faith at 
Amersham. Again, in the next century, came a repetition of 
similar scenes, when in 1506 a William Tylesworth was burnt at 
Amersham, a peculiarly revolting feature of the proceedings bein°- 
that "Joan, his only daughter, and a faithful woman, was 
compelled with her own hands to set fire to her dear father." In 
1521, his own children were forced to perform a like office for John 
Scrivener. That these fanatical deeds but contributed to fan the 
flame of religious devotion may be seen by the student of history 
in that significant rallying of famous Puritans on the confines of 
Amersham, in the neighbourhood of Chalfont St. Gile's, in the time 
of the Stuarts. To Cromwell the spot was endeared by ties of 
relationship, for Woodrow High House was the residence of his 
wife and daughters. General Fleetwood lived at La Vache, and 
Jordans recalls the persecution of the Society of Friends, and the 
burial place of William Perm. 

Looking backward, across the years, it seems part of the 
natural sequence of events that John Hampden's protest against 
the Ship Money Tax should have been lodged in this neighbour- 
hood. The land on which the tax was to be levied lav in the 



parish of Stoke Mandevilie, where, near Prestwood Common, an 
obelisk was erected in 1863, with the following inscription from the 
pen of the Lord Chief Justice Erie : — 

For these lands in Stoke Mandevilie 

JOHN HAMPDEN 
Was assessed in twenty shillings 

Ship Money, 
Levied by command of the King, 

In legal strife, 
He upheld the rights of the people, 

Under the law 

And became entitled 

To grateful remembrance. 
His work on earth ended 
After a couflict on Chalgrove Field, 
The 18th of June, 1643, 
And he rests in Great Hampden Church. 

The fact that Aylesbury has received an offer to erect a 
bronze statue in its marketplace to the memory of the Great 
Liberator, within the last few weeks, the whole expense to be borne 
by the generous donor, himself an old yeoman, is an eloquent 
expression of the esteem in which his memory is held in 
Buckinghamshire. 

That County, as might well be expected, suffered severely 
during the Civil War. Speaking generally, it is noticeable that while 
the towns were for the most part on the side of the Parliamentarians, 
the countryside and villages declared for the King. The account of 
Ye Battel of Alisbury 1642, is thus rendered in the Parliamentary 
Annals of the time: — 

Good and Joyful Nevves oot of Buckinghamshire, being an exact 
and true Relation of a Battel, stricken between Prince Robert (sic) 
and Sir William Balfore, Lieut. Generallto his Excellency the Earl of 
Essex, near Alisbury in that County, on Tuesday last the 1st 
November, wherein the said Sir William obtained a great and glorious 
victory. 

Newport Pagnell surrendered to the Parliamentary forces in the 
following year, Many of the engagements of 1644 and 1O45 were 
fought around Buckingham, at that time a Royalist centre, whilst 



Boarstall, originally held by the King, was taken by the 
Parliamentarians, re-taken by the Royalists, and finally its Governor, 
Sir William Campion, surrendered to General Fairfax in 1646 after 
an eighteen hours' siege. 

The parlous state of the Roundhead Army when lying at 
Great Brickhill was such that, according to a memorable letter 
written from that place by its Council of War to the Speaker, by 
reason of desertion, sickness and inadequate pay, unless a speedy 
improvement were effected, there would soon be no Army left. 
Had the Royalists at that time struck a decisive blow, history 
might have had a different tale to tell. But from that time on 
things altered for the better with the Roundhead troops, and 
fortune deserted the Royalists. 

In the fascinating Memorials of the Verney Family may be 
found an account of that devoted adherent to the Royalist Cause, 
Sir Edmund Verney, of Middle Claydon, who acted as knight 
marshal and standard bearer to King Charles I. at Edgehill, and 
laid down his life on the field for his royal master. Only his hand 
was found after the fray, still, according to tradition, grasping the 
standard. And that gallant knight had espoused the King's cause 
from a sense of loyalty, and despite his convictions. His son, Sir 
Ralph Verney, followed the Parliamentary standard. 

In the case of Sir Alexander Denton, his devotion to the 
throne cost him both his son and home. 

The County suffered at the hands of the soldiers of both 
parties during the war. Sir Bulstrode Whitelock, that great 
Parliamentary statesman, leftFawley Court, never to return, owing 
to the depredations of the Royalist troops quartered there in 1642, 
under Sir John Biron. The old Greenland House was almost 
destroyed during the siege it underwent in 1644 by the 
Parliamentarians, and after holding out for six months, Sir John 
d'Oyley was obliged to capitulate. The extent of the damage 



7 



perpetrated by Cromwell's soldiers under Colonel Purefoy to the 
beautiful old Church of St. Edmund's at Maid's Moreton is only 
too well known. And old Chicheley Hall suffered so severely at 
their hands that it was subsequently pulled down, and the present 
mansion erected in its place. 

The general method of procedure is frankly related in a 
letter written by a private Roundhead soldier, one Nehemiah 
Wharton, from Ayesbury, on August 10^,1642. After stating that 
he had left London with the Sixth Company, he adds that having 
reached Acton, and being belated, " they were constrained to lodge 
in beds whose feathers were above a yard long," which he accounted 
a foretaste of hardships. However, the next morning, they made 
matters even by pillaging the house of "one Penruddock, a papist," 
by reason of having been " basely affronted " by both master and 
dog. Next the church came in for a share of their attention, the 

stained glass windows suffered, and " the holy railes " were burnt. 

A similar programme was carried out at Chiswick, and at 
Hillington they " got the surplesse, to make handecherches." A 
further act of mischief was perpetrated at Uxbridge, where this 
ingenuous person owns they burnt the " service book." 

Taking up his pen again two days later, Nehemiah narrates 
another incident of their advance, the scene this time being laid at 
Wendover. Here it seems that one of the Company, " forgettinge 
that he was charged with a bullet, shot a maide through the head, 
and she immediately died." It is but fair to the writer to add that 
this, to use his own expression, made them " march very sadly two 
miles." By which time, the chastening effect of that untoward 
incident had worn off in all probability. 

To turn for a few minutes to the earlier history of the 
County is to discover that controversy has waged around the 
origin of the name of the shire itself. According" to Camden, 



8 



Buckinghamshire derives its name from the Saxon word Boccen, or 
Buccen, signifying Beech trees. The objection to this etymology 
lies in the fact that the beech clad region is mainly confined to 
southern Bucks. Spelman puts forward another rendering of the 
same word, Buccen, viz. Bucks or Deer. Those painstaking 
historians, the Messrs. Lysons, incline to the latter view, but 
advance another theory, that Boch refers to its being bock, or 
charter land, as opposed to folk, or copyhold land. But the 
modern theory favours the view that the word Bock, or Buck is 
derived from some Saxon chieftain, who took up his abode in this 
part of England, and bestowed his name upon it. 

Buckinghamshire's earliest inhabitants appear to have been 
the Cattieuchlani, supposed to be identical with the Cassii, whose 
king was the great British Chieftain, Cassivelaunus. It is 
conjectured that the remains of camps found at West Wycombe, 
Cholesbury, Burnham and Hanridge, are of British origin, and 
that the stronghold in the Chiltons called Kimble Castle, was 
Cymbeline's Palace, but this it is impossible to substantiate 
Again, Kimble has been selected as the scene of the defeat of 
Cymbeline's two sons, by Aulus Platius, on which occasion, one of 
them, Togodumnus, was slain. Grim's Dyke, too, is sometimes 
considered to belong to this period, but authorities are not agreed 
thereon. The name points to Saxon times, when its construction 
was attributed to the devil, or Grim, although this again is 
contradicted by other authorities, who state that no satisfactory 
explanation of the name can be given, and that possibly the dyke 
is not a fortification at all, but merely a territorial boundary of the 
Saxons. 

In the natural sequence of events, the Romans, having 
overcome the resistance of the British, constituted Buckingham- 
shire part of their province of Flavia Caesariensis. Traces of 
earthworks dating from this period occur, the remains of Roman 
villas have been found at Latimers and High Wycombe, including 



a beautiful tessalated pavement at the latter. Watling Street and 
Akeman Street crossed the County, the Ouse and Ouzel being 
spanned by the former at Stony and Fenny Stratford respectively. 

Fierce resistance met the invading Saxon in the sixth century ^ 
and it was only after a severe struggle that Cuthwolf, the brother 
of King Ceawlin, took possession of Aylesbury in 571. Later, at 
the beginning of the tenth century, Edward the Elder made a four 
weeks' stay in Buckingham, where he fortified the Ouse on each 
side of its banks against the Danes, who also raised similar 
fortifications along the banks of the river in this vicinity. Edward 
the Confessor iiad a royal palace at Brill, on the western borders of 
Bucks, and in the neighbourhood of what was afterwards known 
as Boarstall, where, from the vantage ground of a thick wood, a 
gigantic boar terrorised the countryside, until Nigel, the huntsman 
entrapped and killed the monster, for which service he received the 
honour of knighthood from the King, who gave to him and his 
heirs for ever Hule Wood, and an arable tract of land called 
Derehide, together with the custody of Bernwood Forest. Upon 
the land granted by the King, Nigel built a lodge called 
"Boarstall" in memory of the deed that had occassoned the grant. 

In 1010 Thurkill the Dane overran Buckinghamshire, which 
thereafter remained to some extent in the hands of the invaders, 
and later formed part of the possessions of Earl Leofwine, the 
brother of Harold, and son of the great Earl Godwin. 

With the Norman Conquest came great changes in the 
ownership of the county. To the great Walter Giffard, the 
trusted friend and counsellor of W T illiam I. with whom indeed he 
claimed kinship through their common ancestor, Herfast the 
Forester, the Norman King gave no less than forty eight manors in 
Buckinghamshire ; the King's halfbrother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux 
held twenty six, and Geoffrey, Bishop of Constance eighteen. To 
the Giffards belongs the distinction of being the first to enjoy the 



( 1 



title of Earl of Buckingham. It is by no means clear from ancient 
chronicles, but it would appear that there were three generations 
of the same name. The first, the Conqueror's friend, adviser and 
standard bearer on the field of Senlac, was already aged at the time 
of the invasion, and therefore it is conjectured that the title was 
bestowed upon his son, also Walter Giffard, whose son, Walter, 
took part in the battle of Brenville in nig, when the French King 
Louis VI. was defeated, and, dying without issue in 1 164, the third 
Walter Giffard was buried, according to some accounts, in Notley 
Abbey, which he and his wife, Ermengarde, had founded a short 
time before, so that continual prayers might be offered up for the 
souls of Henry II. and his wife, Eleanor of Guienne, together with 
those of the Giffard ancestors. 

Bishop Odo's tenure was short lived, and after an attempt 
to enforce the claims of William II's elder brother, Duke Robert, 
to the English throne, this militant ecclesiastic received sentence of 
banishment and his estates consequently escheated to the crown. 

Another feature in connection with the Norman Feudal 
System was the quaint tenures by which some of the manors came 
to be held for generations. 

Farnham Royal, for instance, was held for the service of 
providing a glove for the King's right hand, on the occasion of his 
Coronation, and supporting his left arm during the ceremony, 
whilst he continued to hold the royal sceptre. 

Water Eaton, now but a hamlet of Bletchley, was the 
principal manor in former days, and was held for the service of 
keeping a falcon for the King's use. On the day that the bird was 
carried to court, the lord of that manor could claim a horse and 
trappings, the royal table itself as well as the tressels together with 
the table cloth, and all the vessels wherewith the King had been 
served that day, in addition to a cask of wine, so soon as it had 
been tasted by his royal master. 



1 1 



The lord of the manor of Water Hall was required to 
perform the somewhat inexplicable service of finding a man on a 
saddleless horse, providing an arrow without a head, also a bow 
without a string. 

The cross at Monk's Risborough is kept in order by the lord 
of the manor as a condition of tenure. 

Aylesbury Manor was formerly held for a dual service that 
varied according to the seasons, and depended on the date of the 
King's visit to that town. Should the monarch elect to come in 
the winter, the lord of the manor was constrained to find straw for 
his master's bed, together with sufficient for strewing over his 
chamber floor, and three eels, the last presumably for culinary 
purposes. The variation produced by a summer visit, was grass 
for carpeting the royal sleeping apartment, two green geese for the 
larder, in addition to sufficient straw for the King's bed. 

A cautious stipulation was attached to this tenure, to the 
effect that the service was not to be claimed more than three 
times a year, in order to prevent the royal appearances becoming 
inconveniently frequent. 

Traces of Hanslope Castle still remain at Castle Thorpe on 
the borders of Northamptonshire, once the stronghold of the 
Mauduits, and held against King John in the last year of his reign, 
during his war with the barons, until taken by the King's general 
Fawkes de Brent, when it was demolished. 

Buckingham had scant peace in those days. Again, in 1223, 
England being still in a state of great unrest, Richard Sward and 
others took opportunity to lay waste Richard, Earl of Cornwall's 
lands near Brill, and set fire to his houses. 

Chenies, formerly called Iselhampstead, was a royal palace 
in the days of King Edward I. Prince's Risborough is said to have 
been the palace of the Black Prince, hence its name, and in a field 

1 2 



hard by the church, traces of what was formerly a castle are still to 
be seen. 

Near Stony Stratford, once graced by a Queen Eleanor cross 
is a tree called " The Queen's Oak," that is said to derive its name 
from having been the spot where the Yorkist King, Edward IV 
first encountered the beautiful Elizabeth Woodville. The next act 
in that drama took place at Grafton Regis Church, some five miles 
distant, on May morning, of 1464, when she was privately married 
to the King, the only witnesses of the wedding being the Duchess 
of Bedford, and two other ladies, in addition to the buy who served 
the nuptial mass. It is significant that their son, the boy King 
Edward V was born in sanctuary during his father's exile in 1470, 
and in 1483 was arrested by his Uncle, Richard, Duke of 
Gloucester, at Stony Stratford. 

Other interesting historical memorials are the gigantic yew 
at Ankerwycke, supposed to have been the trysting place of King 
Henry VIII. and the unfortunate Anne Boleyn ; Bradenham, where 
Edward, Lord Windsor entertained Queen Elizabeth with much 
ceremony, while Quarrendon recalls that Queen's Champion, Sir 
Harry Lee, who was further honoured by a two day's visit from 
her Majesty, and his love for Anne Vavasour. In the once 
magnificent chapel of St. Peter at Quarrendon, of which today but 
a few roofless arches remain, was their tomb, with the following 
inscription : — 

Underneath this stone entombed lies a fair and worthy dame, 
Daughter to Henry Vavasour, Ann Vavasour her name, 

She living with Henry Lee, for love long time did dwell, 

Death could not part them, but here they rest within one cell. 

As regards physicial features, Buckingham has no river of 
its own. The Ouse traverses the northern part of the County, from 
Brackley to Stony Stratford, and thence pursues a tortuous course 
to Newport Pagnell, through Olney, and so into Bedfordshire. 
The Grand Junction Canal too passes through Ivinghoe, Fenny 



and Stony Stratford, and connects vvitli Wendover, Aylesbury and 
Buckingham. The beautiful southern portion of the County is 
watered by the Thames, and its tributaries, of which the Thame 
waters the fertile Vale of Aylesbury, and the rare merits of the 
Creslow Pastures, those feeding grounds for the cattle for the royal 
table from the time of Oueen Elizabeth to Charles II. are noted 
As late as the beginning of the last century, they were rented by a 
farmer named Westcar, whose success in stock raising was such 
that in the space of twenty two years his valuable and unusually 
fine stock gained no less than forty two prizes in the Smithfield 
Shows. Within Whitchurch Church is his monument, wherein 
stands a herd, leaning on a staff, with sheep at his feet, and an ox 
in the background, and beneath runs the following inscription : — 

Unblemished let me live, or die unknown, 
Oh, grant me honest fame, or grant me none. 

If that were his prayer in life, his wish would seem to have been 

realised. 

The marvellous fertility of the Vale in former days led to its 
being considered a slur on the character of the land for a heap of 
manure to be seen at the edge of a field. Furthermore to even 
demolish an anthill, or plough in straight lines was looked upon 
with disfavour, whilst any attempt at irrigation was sternly 
discountenanced. The Vale derived sufficient moisture from the 
clouds, and its unquestionable fertility was considered to do all that 
was necessary with little human aid. 

The excellence of Buckinghamshire Bread and Beef has long 
since passed into a proverb, and neither has ever failed to meet with 
tin satisfaction of the dairy farmer. 

To the south of the Vale of Aylesbury, the Chiltern Hiils 
trav< im' the county, extending from Bledlow on the south west, to 
Ivinghoe Beacon <>n the east 904 feet high, a height that Combe Hill 
by Wendover exe< ds by a single Foot. The southern beech clad slopes 



H 



of the Chilterns afford vistas of endless beauty at all seasons of the 
year, whether robed in the tender green of early Spring, or as 
gleaming leafy avenues, sunlit, and shimmering with the lustre of a 
peridot in the glorious summer days ; resplendent in all the gorgeous 
colouring of autumnal reds and browns, or wrapped in the cold 
stately beauty of Winter, that mourning time of Ceres, bounded by 
the return of Proserpine, as symbolized by the Ancients' beautiful 
legend of the Spring's return to Earth. 

In early days, the almost impassable forests in the Chiltern 
districts, afforded the best of hiding places for hordes of freebooters. 
Such a menace to public safety did they become, that Leofstan, the 
twelfth Abbot of St. Albans, caused a considerable portion of the 
forest to be felled, and granted the manor of Flamstead to a 
knight of the name of Thurnoth, and his two companions, Waldef 
and Tharmen,in return for a definite promise of protection from the 
incursions of both robbers and wild beasts ; for both of which 
Thurnoth undertook to be responsible, besides making an additional 
present to my Lord Abbot of ' 5 ounces of gold, a fair palfrey and a 
grey hound.' This knight and his heirs faithfully performed their 
part of the bargain until the Norman Conquest, when William I. 
deprived them of the manor. 

Nevertheless, many of the early Kings saw the wisdom of 
Abbot Leofstan's proceedings, and the office of Steward of the 
Chiltern Hundreds gradually came into being. The first duty 
appertaining to it was to put down the robber bands with a firm 
hand, all captives being hanged within sight of the woods wherein 
they had practised their depredations. Such was the origin of what 
has now become a sinecure. The Chiltern Hundreds, as they are 
called, comprise the Hundreds of Burnham, Desborough and Stoke, 
in Southern Buckinghamshire, and their stewardship — to which no 
duties are now attached, since the robbers have ceased to be — is 
accepted by any Member of Parliament, wishing to vacate his seat, 
as an office under Government. 



The acceptance of this office recalls the expedient adopted by 
the harassed Charles I., when he desired to rid his parliament of 
some the most importunate members thereof, and forthwith pricked 
the most recalcitrant for Sheriffs in their respective shires, whereby 
the indignant Sir Edward Coke was allotted to Buckingham. The 
latter thereupon set himself to discover some flaw in his nomination, 
trusting to set it on one side, and triumphantly pointed out to an 
amazed England that the obsolete form of the Sheriff's oath 
practically enjoined them to suppress the established religion by all 
means in their power, as it required them to put down Lollardism 
in all its forms. 

The only result was its amendment, and the angry lawyer 
was compelled to take the oath in its new form. 

But to return to the Agriculture of Bucks. 

Aylesbury's a Vale that walloweth in her wealth, 
And (by her wholesome air continually in health) 

Is lusty, firm and fat ; and holds her youthful strength, 

Thus, Drayton. 

The butter and cream cheese as well as calves, sheep, pigs, 
and othe r live stock, including the far-famed ducks, are especially 
noted in the Vale, whilst wheat, hay, clover, turnips and tares are 
largely cultivated. Condensed Milk is also prepared at Aylesbury, 
and in the south, the quantity of beech and other wood, gives rise 
to the trade peculiar to the County, the manufacture of wooden 
chairs and other implements, such as bowls, spades and brush 
handles, of which High Wycombe is the centre. 

Other products of the soil are sandstone, chalk, clay and 
gravel, also limestone, whilst the Portland beds are quarried at 
both Aylesbury and Hartwell. 

The Great Western and the London and North Western 
Railways afford ample facilities for rapid communication, Olney, 
on the northern border being also served by a Midland Line. 



16 



As regards manufactures, Buckinghamshire lace was wont 
to give employment to a great many women and girls in the north 
eastern part of the County, but with the advent of the machine- 
made variety, the trade has declined, whilst on the borders of 
Bedfordshire, straw plaiting and the making of straw hats and 
bonnets are carried on. Silk weaving, shoe-making and the 
manufacture of paper are among the other principal industries. 

The chief towns in the County are High Wycombe, the 
centre of the chair making industry, and deeply sensible this year 
of the honour bestowed upon it as the busy recipient of the order 
for the specially designed chairs and stools for the Coronation 
Ceremony; Slough, and the County Town, Aylesbury, which 
comes third on the list, in point of size. 

In former days, the manor of High, or Chipping Wycombe, 
was the propert) of Queen Edith, the wife of Edward the Confessor 
and until the Reform Act of 1867, enjoyed the distinction of being 
a Parliamentary Borough. It was thus represented by Edmund 
Waller, the poet, in 1626. 

Among its ancient records is an order dated 1398, giving a 
delightful insight into the despotic rule of the then mayor, over the 
borough : — 

That no man of whatever condition shall be delaying in the 
town of Wycombe after ten o'clock at night ; any wanderer 
ought to go out of the town, unless he have reasonable 
cause for wandering therein. And if anyone be so wandering 
about after the said hour, he shall be imprisoned by the servants of 
the town, and detained in prison, until he be set at liberty by the 
mayor (or someone holding his place) and the commonalty. 

The church of All Saints is the largest in the County, and 
contains, among much that is interesting, the only relic of an 
earlier church built by Swartling the Thane, at the close of the 
eleventh century, in the shape of a portion of a capital, in a niche 
in the north aisle, and some rough walling composed of boulder 
stone. 



l 7 



The common rights of the Rye, a meadow of some thirty 
acres in extent are another survival of former days, for every 
inhabitant of the town has the right to pasture two cows and a 
heifer therein. 

M iny have been the interesting discoveries of Roman 
remains found in this neighbourhood, which derives further 
historical interest from the tradition that Richard, the son of the 
great Simon de Montfort, lived at Wreck Hall in this parish, under 
the name of Wellesbouine, when he returned to England after the 
banishment of his family. 

Among other interesting recollections of High Wycombe, 
that pleasing little town nestling in the valley of the little river 
Wick, surrounded by beech clad hills, is the name of John Rowell, 
the artist plumber of the eighteenth century, who discovered the 
secret of that exquisite red coloring to be seen in old stained glass 
windows, although this is supposed to have perished with him. 
Some of his work is to be seen in Hambleden Church, but, it must 
be added, that time has proved his colours to be very unequal. 
Some bear the supreme test of years, and others do not. 

Slough, a hamlet of Upton-cum-Chalvery, owes its develop- 
ment largely to the Great Western Railway, and its other claim to 
interest is the one previously mentioned, viz. as being the scene of 
the Herschels' invaluable astronomical observations. 

The early history of Aylesbury is connected with one of the 
legends of a local saint, St. Osyth, or St. Syth, as she was commonly 
called, whose birthplace was Ouarrendon. The daughter of 
Frithwald, King of the East Angles, and Wilburga, his wife, her 
early days were closely associated with those other two Bucking- 
hamshire saints, her aunts, St. Eaditha and St. Edburg, with whom 
her story is often confused. It would appear that her girlhood 
included the miraculous restoration to life three days after she had 
been drowned. Her betrothal to the King of Wessex was followed 



iS 



by her practically taking the veil on the day of her marriage, and 
she met with her death at the hands of the Danish invaders in 600. 
It is said that after her execution, her remains were interred in 
Aylesbury Church, where they were the means of performing many 
miracles. Of her aunt, St. Eaditha, tradition avers that Aylesbury 
was bestowed upon her by her father, and that she founded a 
nunnery in that town. 

It is interesting to notice that Gibb in his History of Aylesbury 
states that there are no less than fifty seven varieties of spelling the 
name of this town, the changes being rung on Aegliesburie, 
Aillesburie, Eillesbury, Eilesburia &c. It is unfortunate that its 
early records have been lost, for they could not fail to prove 
interesting. 

At one time Sir Thomas Boleyn, the father of Anne Boleyn 
was lord of Aylesbury, and later, it passed to the Packingtons, who 
continued to hold the manor for over two hundred and fifty years. 
How supreme their influence was in earlier days may be judged 
from the following extract from a letter to be seen in the Chapel of 
the Rolls, among the returns of Parliamentary Writs in the reign 
of Oueen Elizabeth : — 

To all Christian people, to whom this present writing shall 
come : I, Dame Dorothy Packington, late wife of Sir John 
Packington, Knight, lord and owner of the town of Aylesbury, send 
greeting. Know ye me, the said Dorothy Packington, to have chosen, 
named and appointed my trusty and well-beloved Thomas Litchfield 
and George Burden Esqs. to be my burgesses of my said town of 
Aylesbury And whatever the said Thomas and George, Burgesses, 
shall do in the service of the Queen's Highness in that present 
Parliament to be holden at Westminster, I, the same Dorothy 
Packington, do ratify and approve to be my own act, as fully and 
wholly as if I were present there. 

Truly the demands of the most advanced of modern 
womanhood would seem moderate as compared with the absolute 
and undisputed sway of this despotic Dame Dorothy. 

St. Mary's Church, Aylesbury, is yet another instance of the 
treatment meted out by the Parliamentarians during the Civil War, 



'9 



for thereafter down to about tlio \Tnr184R, no vestige of stained glass 
remained in its windows, whilst the beautiful low arches between 
the chapel and trancepts were for some unknown reason filled up 
level with the wall. The church moreover, possesses a fine peal of 
eight bells, of which the town is justly proud, each bearing its own 
inscription : — 

i. I mean to make it'understood, 

That though I'm little, yet I'm good. 

2. If you have a judicious ear, 

You'll own my voice is sweet and clear. 

3. Such wondrous power to music's given, 
It elevates the soul to heav'n. 

4. Music is medicine to the mind. 

5. Praise ye' the Lord. 

6. The name of the foundeis and date only 
(Pack and Chapman of London, 1773.) 

7. You singers all that prize 

Your health and happiness, 
Be sober, merry, wise, 

And you'll the same possess. 

8. In wedlock's bands, all ye who join 

With hands, your heart unite ; 
So shall our tongues combine 
To laud the nuptial rite. 

The churchyard in former days was used for almost every 
conceivable purpose. Besides being the resort of the least desirable 
characters in Aylesbury, all kinds of sports were held therein, 
floggings were administered to miscreants, and during the Borough 
Elections, candidates were wont to address their constituents from 
an ancient tomb that has since been removed. 

Nor in connection with the political fortunes of Aylesbury 
must the name of the notorious John Wilkes, the editor of the 
"North Briton" be forgotten. West of the churchyard stands the 
Prebendal House, brought to him in marriage by Mary Mead, the 
wife, whose family influence secured Wilkes' election for the town 



20 



The circumstances connected with the burning of No. 45 of his 
paper by the common hangman, containing his criticism of the 
Treatv of Paris at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763 
have passed into history, as has the cry raised subsequently of 
' Wilkes and liberty,' that converted the member for Aylesbury into 
a stalking horse for much national discontent. And Wilkes himself 
after under going out-lawry and imprisonment, represented 
Middlesex for many years in the House of Commons, and in 1774 
was elected Lord Mayor of London. 

The virtue of Aylesbury Ale has been celebrated in local 
verse: — 

If you've any disorder, 

Or feel out of order, 
There's a cure safe and certain that never will fail ; 

Contradict it who pleases. 
What cures all diseases, 

Is a plentiful dose of good Aylesbury ale. 

Among other important buildings in modern Aylesbury, is 
the handsome County Hall, on the south east side of the old Market 
Square. The Royal Bucks Hospital, containing eloquent memorials 
of past generosity in the shape of the Verney Ward for Men, the 
Lee Ward for Women, and the Erie Reading Room. The Mechanics 
Institute is a fine building erected entirely at the expense of that 
most generous of landowners, Lord Rothschild, from whom the 
town holds it at a peppercorn rent. Opened in 1880, the building 
at that time comprised a good reading room on ground floor, an 
excellent library on the second, consisting of between two and three 
thousand volumes, contained in oak and glass bookcases, the gift of 
Lady Rothschild ; and in 1903 a caretaker's residence, together with 
card and billiard rooms, and a club room, were added. 

Aylesbury has much cause to remember the Rothschild 
family with gratitude, and since 1865 has confined its represent- 
ation in Parliament to their unfailing care. The Victoria Club 
for Working Men was instituted by the late Baron Ferdinand 



21 



James Rothschild, the husband of Evelina, the daughter of the late 
Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild, and the founder of the Evelina 
Hospital for Children at Southwark, in memory of his wife, whose 
death occurred in 1866. The town also owes its public Swimming 
and Slipper Baths largely to the generosity of the same Baron 
Ferdinand, who contributed ^2,000 out of the total cost of nearly 
£"3,000 towards their erection. 

Four miles from Aylesbury lies Aston Clinton, formerly the 
residence of Louisa, the late Dowager Lady de Rothschild, the 
wife of Sir Anthony de Rothschild, uncle of the present Lord 
Rothschild, who died in 1876. As a memorial to her husband, 
this lady built and presented Anthony Hall to the village in order 
that they might have adequate accommodation for local entertain- 
ments, and on her death in September, 1910, it was decided to erect 
a handsome drinking fountain at Aston Clinton in memory of one 
who had had the welfare of the village sincerely at heart. It was 
the well-known Mr. Leopold de Rothschild, the brother of Lord 
Rothschild, who bestowed Charlotte Cottage on the village of 
Wing, so that the necessary hospital accommodation might be 
available for his poorer neighbours in case of need. 

But time would fail to tell all this great family have done 
for Buckinghamshire, even among the instances that are known to 
have emanated from them. Their philanthropy is of the selfless 
kind that frequently shelters itself under the cover of anonymity. 

Although rich in mediaeval churches, scarcely a trace is left 
of the many religious houses founded in different parts of the 
County prior to the Dissolution, such as the Abbeys of the 
Cistercians at Biddlesden and Medmenham, of the Augustine 
Canons at Notley and Missenden, and the priories at Ravenstone 
and Chetwode. 

In former days the greater part of Buckinghamshire was 

included in the diocese of Lincoln, and later was transferred to the 



22 



See of Oxford. At the present time there is a movement on foot to 
make the County into a separate diocese, on the ground that to 
accord its 213 parishes a bishop, a city and a cathedral all its own, 
would be no inconsiderable advantage to its spiritual needs. 

Notwithstanding its paucity of castled ruins and memorials 
of a monastic past, Buckingham is replete with interest. 

The village of Lavendon in Northern Bucks, was not the 
only one in former days to possess its private, albeit illegal mint, 
for the manufacture of XVIII Century Tradesmen's tokens, their 
origin being the difficulty of providing for small change. 

At Wolverton in North West Bucks, are the huge workshops 
of the London and North Western Railways, and this is the 
resting place of the Royal trains when not in use. Here, too, 
the Government Registered Envelopes are made and printed 
in Messrs. McCorquodale's large factory. Newport Pagnell has a 
considerable lace industry, and in former days possessed a strong 
castle, and was the seat of a noted theological college. 

The records of Haversham, some three or four miles 
westward, reveal a remarkable entry in the book of accounts of the 
Surveyors of the Highways under date of December 26th, 1757 : — 

Wee do macke an a Greement in the Parish of Haversham that 
Euery man shall a Gree that John Wepster and Mathew Teagell shall 
lay down the Boacks in the Field to the best of their Nolige and 
they shall be some to the same, and Laying the penelty of five pounds 
to any man that shall sortyfie the same to the Ouerseers of the poor 
at Hanersham. 

Wee hose names aie under 
Riten detest the same. 
Jno. Busby 
Tho. Line. 

A strenuous time apparently was before John Wepster and 
Mathew Teagell, but the exact nature of their labours is difficult to 
determine. 

The historical interest of Stony Stratford has already been 
touched upon, but the following two epitaphs in its churchyard 
are worthy of mention : — 



from her vocation, and after a severe illness, Walter de Whyteforde 
resolved to follow in her footsteps, and became a monk. 

To the hermit of Dinton, one John Bigg, who lived the life 
of a recluse in an underground cave in that neighbourhood, 
tradition ascribed the sinister distinction of having acted as 
executioner to Charles I. 

In the days when Buckinghamshire formed part of the 
diocese of Lincolnshire, Bishop Henry de Burghersh, Chancellor of 
England occupied an episcopal palace at Fingest, and, an ardent 
huntsman, like many another prelate in those days, enlarged his 
park at the expense of the village common, an act of injustice that 
so trouble 1 him in the next world that his uneasy ghost gave the 
neighbourhood no rest until the Canons of Lincoln, divining 
cause of their former Bishop's disquietude, restored the common to 
its rightful owners, and gave his spirit peace. 

Belief in witchcraft died hard in Buckinghamshire, and as 
late as the middle of the eighteenth century, one Susanna 
Hannokes, an aged resident in Wingrave, in the eastern part of the 
County was solemnly charged by a neighbour with having 
bewitched her spinning wheel, so that it would not turn. On the 
suggestion of her husband, she was gravely weighed against the 
church bible. The poor old lady naturally proved the heavier, and 
was forthwith acquitted, on the ground that anything radically 
evil would have been found lighter than Holy Writ. 

Formerly the custom of " Stephening " obtained at Drayton 
Beauchamp, and on St. Stephen's Day the villagers were wont to 
make their appearance at the Rectory, and consume as much bread 
and cheese as they thought fit, at the Rector's expense. 

"Buttying" too was another old Buckinghamshire custom, 
and referred to the serious business of tunning the ale brewed from 
the malt contributed by parishioners in addition to tithes, and 
destined for consumption at the Wakes, or feasts. 



26 



Bull Baiting was popular generally, especially at Aylesbury 
and Buckingham, and the old Bull Ring still exists in the latter 
town. 

The Rhyne Toll of Chetwode is a curious survival of ancient 
times, when the lord of the manor was empowered to levy toll at 
the rate of two shillings per score on all cattle and pigs passing 
through his townships between October 30th and November 7th. 
Usually nowadays the toll is compounded for by a fixed payment 
on the part of the farmers of one shilling each ; but every year, as 
the 30th of October comes round, a horn is blown at nine o'clock 
in the morning from Buckingham church wall, a distribution of 
gingerbread and beer follows, and when a similar proceeding has 
been enacted on the Oxfordshire boundary of the County, the 
beginning of the Rhyne is solemnly proclaimed. 

"Processioning" is much favoured in Buckinghamshire, but 
the custom sufficiently explains itself. 

On Palm Sunday, the children in the Westbury district 
would be much disappointed were they not presented with figs. 
May Day too affords them further opportunities for rejoicings. 
Garlands are carried from house to house, to the accompaniment 
of a simple song, the first two verses of which run as follows : — 

Good morning, ladies and genltemen, 

I wish you a happy May ; 
I have brought yoa my May garland 

Because it is May Day, 
Remember us poor Mayers all ; 

And thus do we begin, 
To lead our lives in righteousness, 

Or else we die in sin. 

The lace makers too were wont to " keep Catern," in former 
times, in honour of St. Catherine, the patron saint of their calling. 

They had their special songs whilst plying their bobbins, 
such as ; — 



27 



Nineteen long lines being over my doun, 
The faster I work it'll shorten my score, 

But if I do play, it'll stick to a stay, 

So high ho, little fingers, and twank it away. 

Two of the quaintest customs hail from Eton, that centre of 
learning, founded by Henry VI. " Hunting the Ram ' was 
abolished in the middle of the eighteenth century, in consequence 
of that frantic animal making good his escape over the Thames 
and so into Windsor The origin of the custom lay in the fact 
that the Provost and Fellows of Eton held a manor by this peculiar 
tenure. 

Formerly on Whit Thuesday, once every three years the 
Eton " Monte m ' was celebrated, when scholars attired in every 
variety of fancy costume, proceeded to Salt Hill, in the neighbour- 
hood, and demanded contributions, termed " Salt " from all and 
sundry ; the proceeds, which frequently reached four figures, were 
handed over to the Captain of the school for his expenses at 
Cambridge. 

The facilities for rapid communication of the present day 
have tended more than any other cause to decrease the local 
vocabulary of the County. But in the neighbourhood of the Ouse, 
the Will o' the Wisp is still known as " Jenny Bunting," whilst 
among other terms more or less peculiar to the shire are " chibble," 
that is to nibble like a mouse, " unked," in the sense of anything 
odd, or unusual. A " sleepy mouse " fittingly signifies a dormouse, 
and a "wum' : is the little ripple occasioned by any disturbance 
on the surface of the water. " Shig Shag Day " is the 29th of May, 
" shig shag " being the local name for an oak tree. 

From the marriage of Eleanor de Bohun in 1374 with 
Thomas of Woodstock (subsequently Earl of Buckingham) the 
youngest son of Edward III., whose daughter, Anne, married into 
the Stafford family, her son, Humphrey being created Duke of 
Buckingham in 1444, it came about that, in process of time, the 

28 



family badge of the Bohuns, a swan, was adopted as the emblem 
of the County. 

As early as 1415, Drayton describing the embarkation of 
troops for France prior to the Battle of Agincourt, writes: — 

The mustered men of Buckingham are gone 
Under the swan, the arms of that old town. 

In peace and in war the swan has since presided over the 
varied fortunes of the fascinating County of Buckinghamshire. 
Under the spell of its influence some of England's sweetest singers 
have poured forth their immortal lays; in history it has been 
symbolical of much that makes for constitutional advance and the 
administration of justice ; while the visions of haunting loveliness 
afforded by the Thames Valley in this County of the Swan have 
been, and always will be the source of inspiration of many an 
artist. 




-v/ vj^ 



29 



3° 



Yeomanry Article 



Cbe Ropal Buckiiigftamsbire hussars 
Imperial yeomanry. 



This section is devoted to the Records of the Buckinghamshire 
Yeomanry, contributed by Major Delap, and fully illustrated 
from special drawings made by him, all hitherto unpublished. 
These illustrations are unique, depicting the various uniforms 
of the Yeomanry of the County, to the study of which Major 
Delap has devoted long and special attention. 



T^LTHOUGH this regiment has not published its records, the 
Pi little that is known about it shows its past to have 
been most interesting. 

The sense of impending danger from the French Revolution 
was felt early in Buckinghamshire, when the noblemen and gentle- 
men of the County, knowing well the excellent spirit of their friends 
and tenants, took steps to bring about the embodiment of a 
Yeomanry rorps. The County of Bucks was one of the first to 
raise Yeomanry in response to Pitt's appeal, a meeting being called 



3 1 



by Charles Clowes, Esq., the High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire, in 
the County Hall at Aylesbury, which was held on May 3rd, 1794 — 
Saturday (being then, as now, the market day, when yeomen and 
county gentlemen might be expected in the town), "to consider 
such measures as might be thought fit to be adopted by the County 
for the internal defence of the kingdom at the present crisis." 

To this meeting were invited the nobility, gentry, clergy, 
freeholders, and yeomen of the County. A variety of resolutions 
were proposed and carried, the most important of which were : — 

41 That the gentlemen, yeomen, and substantial 
inhabitants of the County be invited to enrol them- 
selves in their several respective neighbourhoods into 
different troops of men, armed, and mounted on horse- 
back, attached to one general body, to be known by the 
name of ' The Armed Yeomanry of the County of Bucks,' 
under the command of the Lord Lieutenant of the said 
County. That each troop consist of from fifty to eighty 
men, officers included. The officers to receive temporary 
commissions from the Lord Lieutenant during the war ; 
the muster rolls for the same period likewise to be 
approved by him." 

This was agreed to. Then followed other resolutions to the 
effect that they should only be required to march out of the County 
on the appearance of actual invasion, when one-fourth of each 
troop was to remain within the County for the suppression of riot 
or tumult. In either of these cases, but in no other case, the men 
to receive pay as Cavalry, and be subject to the provisions of the 
Mutiny Act. Each man was to attend when called upon, mounted 
upon a serviceable gelding or mare not less than fourteen hands 
high, and to wear a uniform provided at the expense of the County 
subscription, with arms and accoutrements. The dress of the 
" Armed Yeomanry of the County of Bucks " was a green coat, 
faced with black velvet and gold buttons, all alike for officers and 
men ; a buff waistcoat ; a hat trimmed with bearskin, all alike for 



32 



officers and men, except in the plume, which in the case of officers 
was to be white, non-coms, green and white, and for the privates 
green ; goatskin furniture thrown over the saddle, a good sword 
and shoulder-belt, with a pistol, pair of holsters, and ammunition 
pouch and belt. The men had to provide their own saddles, 
bridles, boots, breeches, and gloves, all of leather. 

The first picture represents an officer of this period. The 
following is a list of the officers taken from a Yeomanry List now 
in the War Office. The dates are somewhat at variance with what 
is stated above — 1793. Fencible Cavalry, Buckinghamshire. 

Colonel, George Marquis of Buckingham 

Lieut. -Colonel, Lovell Badcock. 

Major, Henry Tomkins 

Captain William Loftus 

Captain Richard Dayrell 

Captain Robert Wegncke 

Captain Sir W. Young, Bt. 

Captain Scrope Bernard 

Captain Benjamin Day 

Captain Lt. George E. Temple 

Lieut. Robert Flower ... 

Lieut. Stanhope Badcock 

Lieut. George Wood ... 

Lieut. James Harper ... 

Lieut. Charles Wilkinson 

Lieut. Benjamin Vasser 

Lieut. Robert Browne... 

Lieut. Phillip Hills ... 

Lieut. Henry Dayrell ... 

Lieut. Richard Gardner 

Ensign W. B. Fenton ... 

Ensign T. B. Badcock 

Ensign Richard Dayrell 

Ensign Thos. Osbaldeston 

Ensign Henry Forbes ... 

Ensign Henry Way 

Adjt. L. Stanhope Badcock 

Qr.-Mr. Robert Flower 



Surgeon W. B. Fenton 



1780 
1778 
1780 
1779 
1780 

1785 
1786 

J793 

1793 
1762 

1780 

1781 



1788 
1790 
1792 

1793 

1788 
1791 
1792 

1793 



1779 
1760 

1788 



33 



Such was the equipment of the first Yeomanry establishment 
in the County, which was embodied on May 13th, 1795. with the 
Lord Lieutenant for Commanding Officer, and George Marquess 
of Buckingham as one of the captains, while* the Sheriff, Mr. Clowes, 
contented himself with the rank of lieutenant. The troops were 
frequently called out and exercised, and at various times were 
brought together to form a regiment. 

Six troops were quickly raised under Captains George 
Marquess of Buckingham, Sir William Young, Bt., William 
Praed, Sir John Dashwood, Thos. Grenville, and Render Mason. 

On Feb. 22nd, 1797, an adjutant was appointed to overlook 
the drill of the regiment, one Capt. Mansell Dawkins Mansell. In 
1798 we find the Marquess of Buckingham, Thomas Grenville, and 
Lord Grenville majors in the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry, which 
had increased to sixteen troops, with an establishment of 636 rank 
and file. 

Of the sixteen troops Newport Pagnall furnished two, and 
Winslow, Olney, Fenny Stratford, Stoney Stratford one each in the 
northern part of the County. In South Bucks, Amersham, Eton 
and Taplow each raised one troop ; Burnham and Desborough 
furnished two troops each ; while in Middle Bucks, Aylesbury and 
Buckingham supplied troops of Yeomanry. 

About this period the rank of captain-lieut. appears, being a 
lieutenant who commanded a field officer's troop in the field, the 
lieutenant-colonel and majors retaining the command of their 
troops, the captain-lieutenant only commanding the troop when 
the regiment was assembled, and the field officer being consequently 
required to perform their regimental staff duties. 

Nothing appears to have occurred except drills, at which the 
troops were kept pretty constantly till 1S02, when, on the Peace of 
Amiens being signed, the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry apparently 
discontinued their services, but only for a brief time ; war with 



34 



France began again in May, 1803. The threats of invading 
England were louder and stronger than before, so the Bud<s 
yeomen were organised in three distinct corps — viz., the 1st, or 
Southern Regiment ; 2nd, or Middle Regiment ; and the 3rd, or 
Northern Regiment. 

On July 16th, 1803, George Marquess of Buckingham and 
seventy-seven officers were gazetted to the three Bucks Yeomanry 
regiments, thirty to the South, twenty-five to the Middle, and 
twenty-two to the Northern Regiment. 

The Marquess of Buckingham was gazetted Colonel-in-Chief 
of all of the three regiments, which were commanded as follows : 
William Wendham Lord Grenville, Lieut. -Colonel Commanding 
1st (Southern) Regiment ; the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, 
Lieut. -Colonel Commanding 2nd (or Middle) Regiment ; and 
William Praed, being Lieut. -Colonel Commanding the 3rd (or 
Northern) Regiment. 

In 1803 the Southern Bucks returned 452 of all ranks in nine 
troops, the Middle Regiment 370 in six troops, and the Northern 
Regiment 304 in six troops, being a total of 1,126 of all ranks for 
the County, organised in twenty-one troops. 

From the 2nd (or Middle) Regiment, which was raised round 
Aylesbury and Buckingham, as will be seen, the present Bucks 
Imperial Yeomanry is descended. 

The 1805 " Army List " shows the following officers serving 
in the Mid-Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry. 



Lieut. -Col. Thos. Grenville ... 
Major Richard Earl Temple ... 
Major Sir William Young 
Capt. Wm. Henry Freemantle 
Capt. George Morgan... 
Capt. Wm. Lowndes ... 
Capt. Scrope Bernard ... 



July 16th, 1803 

July 16th, 1803 

March 16th, 1804 

Julv 16th, 1803 

July 16th, 1803 

July 16th, 1803 

July 16th, 1803 



35 



Capt. Thomas Sheppard ... ... July 16th, 1803 

Capt. John Newman ... ... ... Feb. 4th, 1804 

Capt. Laver Oliver ... ... ... Feb. 4th, 1804 

In addition, six lieutenants and seven cornets are shown, and 
the adjutant, Henry Huey, who was appointed to the corps 
July 16th, 1803. The arms were sword and pistol, but twelve men 
in troop were armed with carbines. 

The drills were pretty frequent and numerous, till the victory 
of Trafalgar barred the way to Napoleon's scheme of invasion and 
released the Bucks Yeomen from being held in almost immediate 
readiness for the field. 

In 1806 the strength of the Bucks Yeomanry was returned 
as 1,126, of which the six troops of the Mid Bucks Yeomanry 
Cavalry contributed 334 of all ranks. 

In 1808 the Mid Bucks are returned as eight troops, 378 
enrolled, the County total being 1,006, in twenty-two troops, 
which in 1812 had fallen to 822 in twenty-two troops, the Mid 
Bucks standing at 270, but despite the reduced strength still 
maintained eight troops. 

On March 17th, 181 3, the Marquess of Buckingham was 
gazetted colonel of the three regiments. 

In 1813, Col. Grenville, who had commanded for ten years, 
and had been one of the first to raise a troop in the County in 
1774, retired, and was succeeded by Lieut. -Col. William Henry 
Freemantle, who was gazetted to the command on June 15th of 
that year. 

In 1817 the eight troops of the regiment returned 250 effective 
out of the 683 Yeomen enrolled in the twenty-two troops of Bucks 
Yeomanry. 

On February 27th, 1819, the Marquess of Buckingham and 
Chandos assumed command of the Mid Bucks, and the same year 



36 



they were employed to keep the public peace within the County. 
As a result of their useful services their strength was increased to 
ten troops, which are shown in the 1820 return as 428 of all ranks, 
the total for the three Bucks regiments being 1,164 * n twenty-four 
troops. 

In 182 1 the Mid Bucks were employed in London on account 
of the disorder there. This year the title of the Mid Bucks 
Yeomanry Cavalry appear as the 2nd Hussar Regiment of 
Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry, ordered by Lord Lieutenant, 
February 8th, 1820, the uniform being copied from the Hussar of 
that period, consisting of a very handsome jacket and pelisse and 
the Hussar shako, the colour of the uniform being still green. 

It has been found impossible up to the present to discover 
any reliable record of the uniform of the 1st South Bucks. The 
following is a list of the officers in 1825 : — 



Colonel William Clayton 
Lieut. -Col. John Penn 
Major Charles G. Graves 
Capt. Thomas Buckland 
Capt. Edward Welles 
Capt. Thomas P. Wills 
Capt. Charles Scott Murray 
Capt. East George Clayton 
Capt. John Barnes 
Capt. JohnW. Kirkwall 
Capt. James Caledon Du Pre 
Lieut. Henry Chisholm 
Lieut. John Arnell 
Lieut. William Lunnon 
Lieut. John Nash 
Lieut. Rolls 
Lieut. Owen Wethered 
Cornet Henry Williams 
Cornet Alfred Braithwaite 
Cornet Thomas Shrimpton 
Cornet John R. Winkworth 
Cornet Clives Tower 



1813 
1819 
1821 
1817 
1817 
1819 
1819 
1821 
1823 
1825 
1825 
1817 



37 



Adjt. Richard Harreys 
Surgeon William Robarts 

The second picture shows the uniform of the 2nd Mid Bucks 
Hussars at this period, 1825. The details of the full dress are taken 
from a portrait of Captain — afterwardsColonel — George Morgan, 
and now at Biddlesden Park. This officer was great grandfather to 
the present Master of Kinloss. There is a very handsome full length 
portrait of the Marquis of Chandos, afterwards Duke of Buckingham, 
at Wotton House, and showing him in the uniform of this branch of 
the Regiment. 

Lieut. -Col. Com. The Marquis of Chandos 

Lieut. -Col. Geo. Lord Nugent ... 

Major William Selby- Lowndes ... 

Capt. John Newman 

Capt. John Powlett 

Capt. The Hon. Everard Arundel 

Capt. John Grubb 

Capt. William Quartley 

Capt. Edward Temple 

Capt. George Morgan 

Capt. Robert Bates 

Capt. T. T. Barnard 

Capt. Benjamin Vassor 

Lieut. Robert Miller 

Lieut. Robert Gray 

Lieut. Charles Hay ward 

Lieut. Walter W. Carrington ... 

Lieut. Thomas Fowler 

Lieut. George Parrott 

Lieut. John Brickwell 

Lieut. John Gray 

Lieut. John Newman 

Lieut. Samuel Dudley 

Lieut, Philip Box 

Ensign William Hay ward 

Ensign George Bradford 

Ensign John S. Gent 

Ensign James Harrison 





.. 1812 




... 1812 




... 1804 




.. 1809 




.. 1813 




.. 1817 




.. 1817 




.. 1818 




.. 1818 




.. 1818 




.. 1819 




.. 1819 




.. 1803 




.. 1806 




.. 1817 




.. 1817 




.. 1817 




.. 1817 




.. 1817 




.. 1818 




.. 1818 




.. 1819 




.. 1820 




.. 1803 




.. 1817 




.. 1818 




.. 1818 



33 



Ensign Charles Perkins 
Ensign James Senior 
Ensign Charles Terry 
Ensign Owen Wethered 
Ensign W. Tompkins 
Ensign George Bennett 
Ensign Edward Owen Williams 
Adjt. John Fellowes 



1818 
1818 
1818 
1818 
1820 
1820 
1820 
1815 



The third picture shows the uniform of the 3rd North Bucks 
Yeomanry at this time. The details are taken from a portrait of 
Captain Philip Pauncefort-Duncombe of Great Brickhill Manor, 
and great grandfather of the present baronet. The following is a 
list of the officers in 1825 : — 

Lieut. -Col. James Blackwell Praed 

Major Charles Pinfold 

Capt. John Hall Talbot 

Capt. Philip D. Pauncefort-Duncombe ... 

Capt. Matthew Knapp 

Capt. George Lucas 

Lieut. John Garrard 

Lieut. Lynd Conway Gent 

Lieut. Charles J. Pinfold 

Lieut. John Drake 

Cornet Thomas Hall 

Cornet Robert Collison 

Cornet Edward Cowley 

Cornet Charles Drake 

Adjt. Henry Duperrier 

Although no mention has hitherto been made of the Bucks 
Horse Artillery, there appears to be no doubt that the fourth picture 
shows what must have been the earliest uniform worn bv that 
branch of the Regiment. The details are taken from an interesting 
old picture now in the possession of — Cole, Esq., of Bucking- 
ham, Lieut. -Quartermaster of the Royal Bucks Hussars. The 
head dress may be said to be rather that of a dragoon than of a 
horse artilleryman, but it has always been and still is a feature of 
certain Yeomanry Corps that similar discrepancies exist between 



1824 
1824 
1807 

... 1810 


1822 


... 1823 

... 1807 


1810 


... 1817 

1822 


... 1807 

... 1808 


1822 


... 1824 
1822 



39 



their headdress and the remainder of their uniform. The jacket 
and overalls are of the correct horse artillery pattern of the period 
of the tvvo foregoing pictures. The Bucks Horse Artillery always 
were listed as of the Bucks Hussars, and the difference between 
them and their brother officers of the hussar troops was always a 
regimental rather than an army one. This is in all probability 
the reason for the greatly preponderating numbers of the officers 
of the 2nd Mid-Bucks Hussars as shown in the foregoing 
list. 

In 1827 all three regiments of the Buckinghamshire 
Yeomanry were ordered to be disbanded ; but although the 1st (or 
Southern) Bucks and the 3rd (or Northern) Bucks were disbanded, 
the 2nd (or Middle Regiment, or Bucks Hussars as they were now 
also known) were retained, apparently serving without pay or 
allowances rather than be disbanded. 

In September 1830 there occurred formidable riots at Otmoor 
in the neighbouring County of Oxfordshire. These riots were 
caused by an Act of Parliament which had just been passed 
providing for the enclosure of many of the commons and waste 
lands of the County, and amongst those to be converted to agri- 
cultural purposes was the common of Otmoor, not far from Islip, 
and when the fences were put up a riotous assemblage of the 
indignant rural population proceeded to pull them down and 
destroy them. A contingent of eighty men of the Oxfordshire 
Yeomanry Cavalry not being considered sufficient, 150 men of the 
Mid Buckinghamshire Hussars were marched to the place. The 
Yeomen had to submit to a great deal of abuse and some stone 
throwing, but when the Riot Act was read they acted quietly, and 
about sixt) of the foremost rioters were arrested and conveyed 
to prison, an attempt being made to rescue them, which, however, 
the Yeomen beat off. 

Riots of serious nature now broke out amongst the rural 



40 



population in Buckinghamshire, and during November, 1830 a 
severe encounter occurred at Avington, the seat of the Duke of 
Buckingham, where one hundred and fifty farmers had assembled 
encamped round the house. The place was attacked by a mob, 
who were only beaten off after a sharp fight and the arrival of the 
Yeomanry. No lives were lost, however, but several of the rioters 
were taken prisoners. 

Some further rioting took place in the County in the winter 
but by January, 1831 peace had been restored by the local 
Yeomanry. 

The ten troops of the 2nd (or Middle) Bucks, as the corps 
was still officially known, were returned at 511 of all ranks, the 
only other corps in the County being the Taplow Troop, a survival 
of the 1st (or South) Bucks Yeomanry, numbering some forty-six, 
and bringing up the County total to 557 effectives. 

Between 1831 and 1835 the regiment was employed in aid 
of the Civil Power at Hounslow, Aylesbury, and Chesham. 

In 1837 the strength was reduced to eight troops, and the 
strength was returned at 464 of all ranks, and in 1838 at 459. 

On September 22nd, 1839, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of 
Buckingham and Chandos, was appointed Colonel of the regiment 
in command, Lieut. -Colonel George Morgan being second in 
command, his commission dating from January 6th, 1831. 

In 1843 the regiment was again employed on riot duty, and 
was thanked officially for its services Thomas Tyringham 
Bernard, M.P., was gazetted Lieutenant-Colonel (second in 
command), vice Morgan, on August 9th, 1843. 

The earliest Bucks Yeomanry uniform worn by any one 
now living was a light dragoon uniform which is shown in the fifth 
picture. Major Small of Buckingham served in the Regiment 
during this period and from information kindly supplied by him 



4' 



we learn that prior to 1844 the whole Regiment wore this dress, 
that in that year the Hussar troops were formed, but that the 
remainder of the corps — except, of course the Artillery — continued 
as light dragoons until about 1856, when they were changed into 
Hussars, as was the case with several regiments of the regular 
Cavalry. How the old 2nd Mid Bucks Hussars became Light 
Dragoons is veiled in historic mystery. 

The uniform in 1844 was as follows : The officers having a 
dark green hussar jacket braided with five rows of hussar braiding, 
with cap and olivets in silver, dark green collar and cuffs, 
ornamented with silver lace, gold and crimson hussar sashes, silver 
sword belt and sabretache slings, silver pouch belt, green overalls 
with silver stripe ; the dress sabretache was dark green, with mono- 
gram "V.R." in silver and crown in gold; the pelisse was dark 
green, trimmed with black astrakan and black braiding, being 
slung with green cords with tassels, the shakos being of Hussar 
pattern with silver band round the top and lines of silver cord, the 
badge being a Maltese cross, the shako being surmounted with a 
plume of green cock's feathers. In undress a green frock coat, with 
two rows of silver buttons, was worn, with heavy silver shoulder 
scales and dark Royal blue collar and cuffs ; the overalls were blue 
with double scarlet stripes, and the forage cap without peak dark 
green with silver band, button, and welt, white pouch belts with 
black pouch, on which was a Maltese cross as a badge, and black 
sword belt sabretache and sabretache slings completed the undress; 
the sword knots were gold and the gloves white for all occasions. 
The officers' horse furniture was a dark green saddle cloth edged 
with silver braid, over which was a black lambskin edged with red 
cloth, the harness being of black leather. The uniform described 
above is shown in the sixth picture and worn by the figure on the 
right. From information kindly supplied by Major Small we learn 
that it was confined to one Squadron, and that was the Squadron 
detailed for duty at Stowe on the occasion of her Majesty Queen 

42 



Victoria's visit in 1844. Messrs Fores of Picadilly published a 
coloured print of two officers and a private at this time. There 
were various incongruities in the uniform. The officers' pelisses and 
jackets did not correspond. The trimming of the jackets of the 
rank and file did not correspond with that of the officers, and the 
men's plumes were red and white while the officers were green. 

The left hand figure shows an officer of the Horse Artillery 
wearing a jacket of the pattern adopted by the Royal Horse 
Artillery in 1855, but as the Hussar uniform existed until after this 
date it is not an anachronism to place them in the same picture. 
Messrs. Fores also published a coloured print of this uniform. The 
N.C.O.'s and men wore dark green shakos ornamented with red 
and white plumes of horsehair, a Maltese cross, white lines and 
white band round the shako, green Hussar jacket closely braided 
with white cords, and three rows of white metal buttons, and blue 
collar and cuffs, a dark green pelisse trimmed with black fur, and 
white cord and three rows of buttons, blue overalls with a broad 
scarlet stripe. The cross belts and sword belts and slings were 
white, with black pouches and sabretaches, and hussar sashes of 
crimson and yellow were worn ; the harness was black, with black 
lamb skins edged with scarlet, and dark green saddle cloths edged 
with a broad scarlet band. The Artillery troops of the regiments 
wore busbies, in front of which was the badge of a silver gun, with 
scarlet tags and red and white plumes, the officers as well as the 
men wearing closely-braided jackets with three rows of buttons, 
and the saddle cloths were also ornamented with a gun. 

The strength in 1844 was 448 of all ranks in eight troops. 
The year 1845 was a triumphant one for the corps. On January 15th 
that year her Majesty Queen Victoria and the Prince Albeit visited 
the Duke of Buckingham at Stowe. They proceeded from London 
to Wolverton by rail, and from thence drove to Stowe escorted by 
the Buckinghamshire Hussars, and the corps remained on duty 
there in attendance till the 9th. The result was that the 



43 



" London Gazette " of June ioth stated that her Majesty had been 
pleased to confer the title of " Royal " upon the regiment, and the 
2nd or Hussar Regiment of Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry 
was now known officially as the Royal 2nd Buckinghamshire 
Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry. The regiment was now armed 
with carbines instead of pistols. 

In 1847 the Royal Mid-Bucks Yeomanry were again thanked 
for their services in aid of the civil power. 

In April 1848, when the Chartists were threatening to 
overwhelm London with fire and slaughter, the regiment of House- 
hold Cavalry usually stationed at Windsor to guard the Royal 
Castle were withdrawn to protect the metropolis, and their place 
supplied by the Royal Mid-Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry, 
who performed all the duties of guard mounting and escorts usually 
undertaken by the Life and Horse Guards. 

No Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry has ever been so 
honoured. The country at the time was in a state of semi-rebellion 
and the French monarch had already been forced to leave his 
country, and nobody quite knew what would happen in England ; 
and it was thought by those in authority that the country was on 
the eve of a revolution. It was no ordinary duty that befell the 
Bucks Yeomanry ; and if it had not been for the measures taken by 
the Duke of Wellington and the soldiers in London and the loyalty 
of the middle classes, the Royal Bucks might have been escorting 
their Sovereign to a place of safety or guarding the Royal Castle 
against a revolutionary attack. But, owing to the stern and 
strong attitude taken up by the Government, all passed off quietly 
and the truly Royal Yeomen returned to their homes. 

Captain and Adjutant Fellows died in 1848, he having been 
adjutant of the regiment for thirty-three years ; and on September 
1 5th Thomas Wells, late 4th Light Dragoons, was appointed 



44 



adjutant. The strength of the eight troops of the regiment in 1848 
was 540 of all ranks. 

On April 5th, 1853, Brownlow Knox, Esq., late Scots Fusilier 
Guards, was gazetted major, in addition to whom a L ieutenant- 
Colonel was allowed to the regiment to assist Colonel the Duke of 
Buckingham to carry out his duties. The strength in 1854 was 
540 of all ranks, in eight troops. 

In i860 the field officers were Colonel the Duke of 
Buckingham and Chandos, Lieut. -Colonel T. T. Bernard, and Major 
Brownlow Knox. In 1861 the Duke of Buckingham died, and was 
succeeded by his heir, who was gazetted on May 27th, 1862, and 
Lieut. -Colonel Bernard also retiring, Major Brownlow Knox was 
gazetted Lieut. -Colonel ; and on March 1 8th the next year Captains 
Fred Drummond Hibbert and William Seir were gazetted Majors 
of the regiment ; and in 1868 Captain Reginald Calvert, late nth 
Hussars, was gazetted Adjutant. Largely owing to the influence 
of Colonel Hibbert, who had served in the Scots Greys ; the 
incongruities in the Hussar uniform referred to above were 
eliminated. The officers' jackets and pelisses were both laced in 
the manner which had then become regulation in the regular Army, 
but with five rows of lace instead of six, as was usual in Yeomanry 
Corps. The officers' plume was made red and white to correspond 
with the mens', and the jackets of the rank and file were braided to 
correspond with those of the officers. The size of the shako was 
diminished. The uniform as altered in these particulars is shown 
in the seventh picture. On March 12th, i;86g, Major Hibbert was 
gazetted Lieut. -Colonel (vice Knox retired) and to the command, 
the second in command being Major Knox Holmes, who was 
gazetted fifteen days later. 

About this period our alliance with France produced an 
effect in the dressing of the British Army. A French shaped shako 
was largely adopted both for Infantry and Cavalry. This influence 



45 



was felt in the Royal Bucks Yeomanry. The eighth picture shows 
an officer in full dress wearing the shako referred to with a plume 
of white feathers. It was at this period that the picturesque 
pelisse and girdle of former days were discarded. 

In 1871 the reorganisation of the Yeomanry took place, as a 
lesult of the awful lessons of the Franco-German War directing 
public attention to the state of the Auxiliary Forces. The 
Yeomanry Force were put under new regulations and the establish- 
ments revised, that of the 2nd Bucks and Royal Buckinghamshire 
Yeomanry Cavalry as they were now called being fixed at one 
lieutenant-colonel, one major, eight captains, eight lieutenants, four 
cornets, one adjutant, one surgeon, one veterinary surgeon, one 
sergeant-major, eight quartermasters, eight permanent staff- 
sergeants, twenty sergeants, twenty corporals, one permanent 
trumpeter and seven yeoman trumpeters, and 400 privates, or a 
total of 490 of all ranks. 

As seen from the above, the number of cornets was reduced 
from one per troop to one per squadron ; the rank of cornet was 
shortly afterwards abolished, that of sub-lieutenant substituted 
which later gave place to that of second lieutenant. 

The headquarters in the 1871 "Army List" are shown at 
Buckingham, where they have ever since remained. The regiment 
was now armed with a really serviceable carbine, the Westley 
Richard, and in 1874 were second in the Lloyd-Lindsay competition 
at Wimbledon. 

In 1876 the Government decided that in future Yeomanry 
regiments should consist of Light Cavalry; accordingly the 
Artillery troop was broken up. Owing to the deep regret 
occasioned to many members of the Corps by the removal of the 
guns, the War Office authorized the formation of a Squadron 
which was to form on the right of the line, and to retain the 
privilege of wearing the Horse Artillery uniform. This practice 



46 



continued until about 1893, when the dress of all the eight troops 
was made uniform. The picture shows an officer of the Royal 
Bucks Hussars, but privileged to wear the Bucks Horse Artillery 
uniform. On March 3rd, 1877, Capt. George M. Morgan, late 
Captain 4th Dragoon Guards, was gazetted Major ; and on July 
13th Captain the Hon. J. D. Drummond, of the 6th Dragoon 
Guards, was gazetted Adjutant. The strength in 1877 was 382 of 
all ranks, and in 1874, 415, the establishment being 498. In 1881 
Snider carbines were issued. Captain H. L. Ellis, 6th Dragoons, 
was appointed Adjutant in 1882. 

The precedence of the Yeomanry regiments was settled in 
January, 1885, the Royal Bucks Yeomanry official data being taken 
as December, 1830, when the regiment was once more placed on 
the paid establishment, and the number allotted to the regiment 
was 21st. This was most unjust to the regiment, as the regiment 
was not disbanded in 1828 and re-raised in 1830-31, as can be 
proved. For instance, the title 2nd Bucks would never have been 
adopted if the regiment had been re-raised, seeing that there was 
no other Yeomanry corps with the exception of a newly-raised 
troop at Taplow in the County, dating from about 1830. 

This isolated troop is a curious and interesting feature in 
the history of the County. It was raised in the forties by Lord 
Orkney and continued under his command until about 1862. It 
appeared almost impossible to obtain details of their uniform but 
through the kindness of Mr. George Cross of Windsor, an old 
member of the troop, this deficiency has been supplied, and the 
accompanying picture shows what they looked like. 

About the time of Lord Orkney's retirement the Taplow 
troop were changed into Lancers and supplied with a uniform almost 
exactly like the 16th Lancers except for their plume which was 
white. Under the command of Captain N. G. Lambert they 
continued to flourish until 1868-69 when they ceased to exist. 

Again, the regiment was serving at the Otmoor Riots in 



47 



September, 1830, also the Adjutant's (John Fellows) commission at 
the time of his death, in 184H, was dated at 1815; and other 
evidence could be shown to prove the unjust way the regimental 
precedence was settled by the War Office authorities ; and there is 
little doubt that at the Public Record Office official letters could 
be found proving the corps' active existence during the years 1828, 
1829, and 1830, as the Derbyshire and Pembrokeshire regiments of 
Yeomanry have been able to prove. In fact, there are several other 
regiments of the existing Imperial Yeomanry who can prove that 
they did not disband in 1828, but served free of public expense till 
the Government had to put them on the paid establishment in view 
of the great political disorder that took place in the years 1830 and 
1831. Martini-Henry carbines were issued in 1886, and on 
December 13th of the same year the Duke of Buckingham and 
Chandos, G.C.S.I., was gazetted Hon. Colonel of the regiment, 
Captain and Adjutant Henry Leslie Ellis retired in 1887, and was 
appointed Major of the regiment, Captain Thomas Richard Francis 
Brabazon Hallowes, 6th Dragoon Guards, becoming Adjutant. 

On April 18th George Manners Morgan was promoted 
Lieut. -Colonel in command, in succession to Lieut. -Colonel 
Hibbert, but he retired in April next year, and was appointed 
Hon. Colonel of the regiment, handing over the command to 
Major Lord Chesham, who, after serving in the Coldstream Guards, 
10th Hussars, and 16th Lancers, had left the Army as a captain, 
joining the Bucks Yeomanry in that rank in 1879, and was 
gazetted Colonel on April 24th, 1889, alter some three months' 
service as Second Major of the corps. In June 1889 Major J. 
Poynter was gazetted additional Major in the corps. 

The title of " Hussars" which the regiment had borne from 
182 1 to 1845 was now revived, and in 1889 her Majesty's 
permission was obtained for the regiment to be officially styled 
the "Royal Buckinghamshire Hussar Yeomanry Cavalry." 

The uniform in 1890 was as follows : A hussar busby with 



48 



scarlet bags with white tracings and boss, red and white plume 
and white liner and boss; dark green jackets with green collar 
and cuffs, with five rows of white hussar braiding, with caps and 
olivets, white braiding up the back and white braid on the collar 
and cuffs, the officer having silver braiding and cords. The overalls 
and pantaloons for all ranks were dark green, with double scarlet 
stripes and black knee boots. In undress, green round forage caps 
were worn, with white band and button, the officers and N.C.O.'s 
having silver bands. The officers' belts were silver, with green 
line through, and silver chains and arrows, silver sabretache slings 
with green line through, and bright green sabretaches with 
'' V.R. ' in silver, surmounted by a crown in crimson and 
gold. The men's belts were white, with plain black pouches, the 
officers' undress pouches being also black, but having the 
regimental badge, a silver Maltese cross ; the officers' horse 
furniture having the distinction of red and white throat plumes 
and black lambskins edged with scarlet cloth, the harness for all 
ranks being brown leather. 

This picture shows the full dress uniform worn by the six 
hussar troops in the eighties. All the officers alike wore the 
undress uniform shown on the left hand figure. 

The headquarters of the eight troops in 1890 were as 
follows: A, Tingewick; B, Stoney Stratford; C, Waddesdon ; 
D, Akeley ; E, Newport Pagnel ; F. Aylesbury ; G and H, Bucking- 
ham. The strengths for the past eleven years were as follows :- 



1880 ... 


... 40 1 


1886 ... 


... 417 


1881 ... 


... 429 


1887 ... 


••• 397 


1882 ... 


— 


1888 ... 


... 396 


1883 ... 


... 481 


1889 ... 


•• 344 


1884 ... 


... 4 6 5 


1890 ... 


••• 337 


1885 ... 


••• 453 







In 1891 the headquarters of C Troop were shifted from 
Waddesdon to High Wycombe, the strength of the regiment being 



49 



347 °f a ^ ranks. The E, or Newport Pagnel, Troop was broken 
up in 1892, and a troop raised in the County of Northamptonshire 
with headquarters at Northampton, recruits also being taken from 
Huntingdonshire and Bedfordshire, the strength still being on the 
decline, namely 335 effectives for the year. 

The Government made another attempt to re-organise the 
Yeomanry Force, and in January 1893 the regiments were ordered 
to be formed into brigades of two regiments each under the senior 
commanding officer of the two regiments. The regimental 
adjutants were done away with, only one adjutant being allowed 
per brigade. The Royal Buckinghamshire Yeomanry Cavalry and 
the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussar Yeomanry Cavalry were 
ordered to form the 2nd Yeomanry Brigade. The establishment of 
the regiment was ordered to be reduced from 498 to 431 of all ranks, 
the number of regimental officers being much the same, however — 
viz., 1 Lieut. -Colonel, 1 Major, 8 Captains, 8 Lieutenants, 4 Second 
Lieutenants, 1 Surgeon, and 1 Vet. -Surgeon, twenty-four 
excluding the Brigade Adjutant, who was borne on the rolls of 
the Bucks Yeomanry. 

At the same time the eight troops then comprising the 
regiment were formed into four squadrons. The eight troop 
quarters were then as follows : A, Tingewick ; B, Stoney Stratford ; 
C, High Wycombe; D, Akeley ; E, Northampton; F, Aylesbury ; 
G and H, Buckingham ; but under the new scheme the four 
squadron headquarters were as follows : Nos. 1 and 2 Squadron 
Headquarters, Buckingham ; No. 3 Squadron, Northampton ; and 
No. 4 High Wycombe, the regimental headquarters still being at 
Buckingham. 

The strength in 1893 showed a considerable decrease in 
numbers, being 298, and in 1894 had dropped to 288, but this was 
the low water mark, and fortunately so, because any squadron 
which fell below seventy efficients was liable to be broken up, and 
the regiment was within eight enrolled members of losing one of 

50 



its squadrons, but in 1895 the strength began to rise, again being 
302 of all ranks. During the 1895 training the Royal Bucks 
Hussars marched to Oxford, a distance of seventeen miles, and went 
through brigade movements with the Oxfordshire Hussar Yeomanry 
before H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, Commander-in-Chief of the 
Army, under the command of Lord Chesham, and then marched 
back to Buckingham, fifteen miles, the saddles not being removed 
from the horses from six in the morning till nine in the evening, 
and on the following day Lord Chesham inspected the horses, and 
out of 280 only three were found to be suffering, and those merely 
from sore backs. The strength in 1896, being still on the increase, 
was 315 enrolled. In September a detachment was raised at 
Potton and attached to G, or Capt. G. D. Smith's troop. Capt. 
J. F. H. Harter was promoted Major on June 17th, 1896. Previous 
in the 1897 training a Maxim gun was presented to the regiment 
by Lieut, the lion. L. W. Rothschild of the 4th Squadron, and was 
used for the first time at this training, it was placed under the 
charge of Lieut. Cecil Grenfell, and a detachment of the Aylesbury 
Troop were sent to the Maxim Works at Erith, Kent, to be trained 
in its use, the Buckinghamshire Hussars being the first corps in the 
Yeomanry Force to possess a regimental machine gun. The 
regiment marched in to Buckingham on May nth, the drills 
being held in Stovve Park, the officers' headquarters and mess 
being at Yeomanry House. On Friday, May 21st, Field Marshal 
Lord Wolsey, the Commander-in-Chief, accompanied by Major- 
General Sir Francis Grenfell, Inspector-General of Auxiliary 
Forces, and Major-General Luck, Inspector-General of Cavalry, 
inspected the regiment in Stowe Park, which formed an ideal place 
for the inspection manoeuvres. At the conclusion of the inspection 
the Commander-in-Chief addressed Lord Chesham, and said he 
was well pleased, not only with the smart and soldierlike 
appearance of the men, but with the excellent way in which they 
had carried out their work. The regiment was as good as any 
Yeomanry Cavalry he had ever seen, if not better, and he 



5i 



congratulated him on commanding such a fine body of men. 
Lord Chesham and the officers of the regiment entertained the 
Commander-in-Chief and a large party of friends to luncheon in 
the Yeomanry House, Lord Wolseley returning to town by a special 
train in the evening. 

The following telegram was received from H.R.H. the Due 
D'Orleans during the training by the Colonel : " Please accept my 
best thanks for the very handsome present I have received from the 
officers of the Royal Bucks Hussars. I hope you will express to 
them my feeling of gratitude for it, and for the kind thought which 
prompted its transmission. I hope to thank them all at no very 
far off date personally, but, meanwhile, hope you will assure them 
of my strong recollection of the very happy time I spent with the 
regiment, which I shall always look back to with feelings of great 
pleasure and affection, and trust I may again have the opportunity 
of another stay with my comrades of the Royal Bucks Hussars." 

The strength in 1897 was 345 °f all ranks, largely due to the 
great increase of the 4th or South Bucks Squadron, due to the 
energy and zeal of Captain H. W. L. Lawson. Martini-Metford 
.303 carbine was now the arm of the corps. The summer of this 
year was marked by a great honour being conferred on the Royal 
Bucks Hussars. On Monday, June 21st, a strong squadron, some 
150 strong, of the regiment, accompanied by the band, assembled 
at Beaconsfield, consisting of men specially picked, for escort duty 
in welcoming back H.M. Queen Victoria to her Castle at Windsor, 
after the Diamond Jubilee celebration in London. On Tuesday 
the day was spent in drills, at Hall Barn, Colonel Lord Chesham 
being in command, assisted by Lieut. -Colonel Harter, Major Loder, 
Captains Lawson, De Winton, and Loder, and Lieutenants C. and 
J. Grenfell ; the evening of the day was spent in a smoking concert. 
At twelve o'clock next day the regiment was marshalled in the 
High Street, from whence it started, headed by the band, for the 
Household Cavalry Barracks at Windsor to join the Royal Horse 



52 



Guards, with which regiment it was to act in forming the field 
officer's escort of her Majesty from Slough to Windsor. After the 
reception at Slough, the squadron led the Escort of the Queen to 
Windsor, and on arrival at the Castle Col. Lord Chesham was 
presented to her Majesty, and by her special command the whole 
of the troopers filed past her carriage as it stood in the Quadrangle. 
Thus once more the Royal Bucks Yeomanry were in the very castle 
which, some fifty years before, they had been told off to defend in 
times of national alarm. Her Majesty, who desired the men to 
come close to the carriage so that she might have every opportunity 
of inspecting them, expressed her royal approval of their smart and 
soldierly appearance. 

Returning to Beaconsfield on Wednesday evening, the 
escort was dismissed next morning and proceeded homewards ; 
and later for these services the thanks of Lord Rothschild, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Bucks, were received. 

On Friday, August 6th, a detachment of thirty men, drawn 
from the Aylesbury and High Wycombe Troops of the 4th 
Squadron, under Capt. Lawson and Lieut. J. Grenfell, assembled 
at Taplow Court, and proceeding to the railway station met the 
King of Siam, accompanied by the Crown Prince, Lord Harris, 
and other people of importance. The Royal Salute was sounded, 
and the Royal party escorted to Taplow Court. The King desired 
his thanks to be given to the Escort through his English secretary, 
Mr. Verney, who many years before had been an officer of the 
Royal Bucks Hussars. 

In January 1898, a new feature was started in connexion 
with the Royal Bucks Hussars, the officers of the regiment 
assembling at Yeomanry House, Buckingham, the headquarters of 
the regiment, for mess and two days' hunting, the Colonel and 
many officers attending. 

Captain L. Sandwith, 8th Hussars, was appointed Brigade 



53 



Adjutant on March ist this year, Colonel, Lord Chesham, other 
regimental staff officers being Lieut. -Colonel Ellis and Major 
Harter. 

Lord Chesham had made several alterations in the 
regimental uniform, changing the busby plumes and horsethroat 
plumes to white from red and white, and introducing a closely- 
braided jacket, at the same time adding scarlet collars to the 
uniform. 

The uniform now consisting of a hussar busby with red bag 
with white trimming and boss, white lines and boss and white 
plume and egret, a dark green jacket with red collar closely braided 
with white cord and three rows of buttons (the officer having five 
rows and silver lace gimp), dark green pantaloons with double 
silver stripes ; the undress caps being dark green round forage caps 
with white band and button, the N.C.O. and officers having silver 
lace, the band wearing scarlet forage caps ; dark green stable caps 
with scarlet tops and white cord edging, having a Maltese cross on 
the left side, were also worn. 

The cross and sword belt were white, the officers having 
silver cross belts with a green line in the middle and silver sword 
belts and slings, also with a green line, the sabretache being as 
before, bright green velvet edged with broad silver lace, silver 
monogram with gold crown above. 

The harness was brown leather, the men having plain black 
sheep skins, the officers having black lamb skins edged with scarlet 
and white throat plumes on their chargers. The band was now a 
very fine one, and the regimental march being the " Gallants of 
England." 

The regimental badge of a Maltese cross, dating from the 
old days when a shako was in use, was still worn, and the old 
motto, " Strike Home," still retained, although almost forgotten by 



54 



the majority of the members of the regiment. 

This year the head-quarters of No. 2 Squadron were re- 
moved from Buckingham to Towcester in 1895, ar, d the squadrons 
were lettered A, B, C, and D instead of numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 — 
the squadrons standing as follows : A Squadron — Buckingham, 
Winslow ; B Squadron — Towcester, Akeley, Bracklev, Daventry ; 
C Squadron — Northampton, Peterborough, Kettering, Newport 
Pagnall, Bedford, Wellingborough ; D Squadron — High Wycombe, 
Beaconsfield, Aylesbury, Ouainton, Taplow. 

The 1898 permanent duty commenced at Buckingham on 
May gth and concluded oil Friday, May 20th, when H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales inspected the regiment. The Prince arrived at 
Buckingham on Thursday evening, the 19th. He was received at 
the railway station by Lord Chesham, Lord Addington (High 
Steward), Major-General Luck (Inspector-General of Cavalry), and 
the Mayor and Corporation and a guard of honour of the Bucks 
Rifle Volunteers, with their band, who extended to " Brookfield," 
where the Prince was to pass the night. He dined with the officers 
of the regiment in the evening at Yeomanry House, at the entrance 
of which seventy dismounted men of the Royal Bucks Hussars, 
nearly all 6 ft. high, were drawn up with drawn swords, a most 
impressive sight, the band playing the National Anthem. The 
regiment paraded next day in the Market Place, and proceeded to 
Stowe Park, where the Prince arrived accompanied by Major- 
General Kelly-Kenny. Despite the stormy and rainy weather the 
men did not cloak, and the review was proceeded with, the Prince, 
who was in the uniform of a Field-Marshal, first proceeding along 
the ranks of the regiment drawn up in line, after which they 
marched past in squadrons, filed past, and then trotted and 
galloped past in squadrons, finally ending in a charge right across 
the Park. The officers were then called out, and after his Royal 
Highness had complimented them on the appearance and efficiency 
of the regiment, he placed himself at the head of the Royal Bucks 



54 



and led them back to the town, where he lunched with the officers 
before departing to London. 

Captain A. B. Loder was promoted Major on July 12th, 
1899, the strength this year of the four squadrons being 414 of all 
ranks. 

In December 1899 the call for Yeomanry for service in South 
Africa was made, and the late Lord Chesham became one of the 
principal promoters of this newforca. Two companies each of some 
120 men were raised, numbered the 37th and 38th (Royal Bucks 
Hussar Companies of Imperial Yeomanry), and with the 39th 
(Berkshire Compa.ny) and the 40th (Queens Own Oxfordshire 
Hussars Company) formed the 10th Battalion, under Lord 
Chesham himself, in addition to which fresh contingents were 
afterwards raised to renew the 37th and 38th Companies and two 
new companies, the 56th and 57th Companies, were raised by the 
regiment, and eventually joined the 15th Battalion although the 
56th and 57th Companies at first formed part of Lieut. -Colonel 
Sandwith's (the late Adjutant) 15th Battalion of Imperial 
Yeomanry. Amongst the officers of the regiment who served 
were Captains W. de Winton, C. A. Grenfell, Lieut. J. P. Grenfell, 
and Lieut. Percival. 

The 37th and 38th Companies were amongst the first to 
leave England, which they did on the Castle liner Norman, 
10th February 1900. 

The Bucks Hussars, with the 2nd Battalion of Imperial 
Yeomanry, were concentrated at Kimberley by the latter end of 
March 1900, and on April 5th took part in a sharp battle of Boshof 
against a strong body of raiding Boers. Lord Chesham and his 
" hunting men " of Bucks made a thorough sporting job of it from 
the beginning and surrounded the enemy. Colonel Villebois 
Mareuil, the French ally of the Boers, was killed ; also Sergeant 
Patrick Campbell, the husband of the celebrated actress, and a 
member of the Bucks Imperial Yeomanry, was killed. 



55 



The 37th and 38th Companies did excellent work on July 
31st the same year at Frederickstal, and also at the great fight at 
Hartebestsfontein, where they earned the special commendation of 
Lord Methuen. After trekking some thousands of miles and 
taking part in many actions against the Boers, the original 
members of the two companies (37th and 38th) were relieved by a 
fresh contingent sent out by the regiment, and returned home in 
the Tingtagel Castle, arriving on Sunday, June 16th, 1901, at 
Southampton, and were received by the Lord-Lieutenant of 
Buckinghamshire (Baron Rothschild), the Mayor and civic 
authorities, and the regiment at High Wycombe the next day, 
where they were entertained to luncheon, the Lord- Lieutenant 
presiding, H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge being also present. 

After many fights the remainder of the Bucks Hussars 
returned home in 1902 with the other companies of the roth 
Battalion, which was now commanded by Lieut. -Colonel Murray, 
D.S.O., who had joined the Bucks Yeomanry for the Front as a 
trooper in December 1899, and went through all the ranks from 
corporal to lieut. -colonel, was mentioned in dispatches, granted a 
D.S.O., and finally brought his battalion home in command — 
surely a record, from private to lieut. -colonel in two years. 

On Lord Chesham going to the war, the command of the 
regiment fell on Major and Hon. Lieut. -Colonel J. F. H. Harter. 

Lord Chesham was mentioned in Lord Roberts' dispatches 
April 1901, and was accorded a most enthusiastic reception on his 
return home to Chesham from the Front on July 13th, 1901. He 
was accompanied by Lady Chesham and escorted by eighty Bucks 
Yeomanrv under Major Lawson. The town was decorated, and he 
was presented with an illuminated address, and finally drawn 
round the town in his carriage. A few days afterwards he took 
his seat in the House of Lords amidst loud cheers, and later, 
was presented by the County of Buckingham with a sword of 
honour at Buckingham. 

56 



The strength of the Bucks Hussars was 353 of all ranks. 

In 1901 the Minister for War, Mr. St. John Broderick, decided 
to improve the Yeomanry Force, which had done such yeoman 
service during the war, and place it on a sound basis. The whole 
Force was styled Imperial Yeomanry, and the title of the regiment 
consequently became the " Royal Buckinghamshire Hussars 
Imperial Yeomanry ' instead of the " Royal Buckinghamshire 
Hussars Yeomanry Cavalry." The regiments were to be increased 
to 596 of all ranks, recruited in four squadrons, and the regimental 
adjutants restored. The establishment of officers was fixed at one 
lieut. -colonel, one major (second in command), four captains, and 
seventeen lieutenants, one of whom was to command the machine 
gun detachment, also one adjutant, one medical officer, one 
veterinary officer, and one quartermaster — a total of twenty-seven 
officers. The establishment of officers was afterwards changed 
somewhat by four majors being added, and the lieutenants reduced 
from seventeen to thirteen. 

The sword was discontinued and only allowed for parade 
purposes, and Lee-Metford rifles issued as the arm of the Force, 
the Yeomanry being now considered a kind of Mounted Rifle Light 
Horse, or a sort of go-between the Regular Cavalry and Mounted 
Infantry, and were ordered to be instructed principally in two 
things, scouting work and dismounted duties in the field. Khaki 
was also ordered to be worn for field service kit ; the strength in 
1901 being returned as 420, of whom 18 were officers. Bedfordshire 
raising a regiment this year, the Bedford men of the Bucks Hussars 
were transferred to that regiment. 

On March 19th, 1902, Lord Chesham, who had been for the 
last eighteen months acting as Inspector- General of the Imperial 
Yeomanry serving in South Africa, retired from the regiment, and 
was appointed Hon. Colonel of the corps, the command being 
assumed by Lieut. -Colonel Harter, who was dated back to January 

57 



igoo, Major and Hon. Lieut. -Colonel A. B. Loder being appointed 
second in command. 

During the month of April, Lord Chesham was appointed 
Inspector-General of Imperial Yeomanry in Great Britain, with 
the rank of Major-General, to the general satisfaction of not only 
the regiment but the whole Force. 

The 1902 training was held at Pendley Park, nearTring, not 
far from Aylesbury, and on May 29th, Earl Roberts, the Commander- 
in-Chief, accompanied by General Turner, Inspector-General of 
Auxiliary Forces, and Major Sherston, North Somerset Imperial 
Yeomanry, his A.D C, inspected the regiment. He was received 
by the local authorities at Aylesbury Station, and a guard of 
honour of the Bucks Volunteers. A detachment of the Bucks 
Imperial Yeomanry, all of whom had served in South Africa under 
Lieutenant J. Grenfell, escorted Earl Roberts through the town, 
which was gaily decorated, to the camp. 

After a visit to the camp, his lordship witnessed the 
departure of men to take part in a sham fight with the Herts 
Yeomanry. The idea was that the Herts men were advancing from 
Berkhampstead on Aylesbury, and four squadrons of the Bucks, 
three advancing and one in reserve, were opposed to them. Most 
of the fighting was on the left flank, and eventually Bucks succeeded 
in driving back the Herts force, taking many prisoners near Pendley 
Manor. It was close by, in Pendley Park, that the march past took 
place, General Sir William Gatacre and the Duke of Beaufort 
being among those who witnessed the inspection. Both regiments 
vvent by in sections, the Bucks, 450 strong, being under Colonel 
Hatfield Harter, and the Herts, nearly 200, under Colonel the Earl 
of Essex. 

The regiment next formed mass, and the Commander-in- 
Chief addressed them. The service, he said, for which they were 
likely to be employed was not as Cavalry, but as Mounted Rifles. 

58 



From what he had seen in South Africa he did not think Cavalry 
would be of any great use ; but he was certain that as Mounted 
Rifles the Yeomanry would be admirable. He advised them to 
take the greatest care of their horses, and not give them unnecessary 
work. It was very essential that they should learn to mount and 
dismount quickly, and to enable them to do this he recommended 
them to go in for short cobby horses rather than large long-legged 
ones. They should also pay great attention to their musketry 
training, for it was necessary to become good shots. From what 
he had seen they had shown a great deal of intelligence, and he 
had heard from their colonels that botli regiments had taken much 
trouble to do their best during the training. He was certain that 
in future the Yeomanry forces would fulfil their purpose. He 
wished them every possible success. 

Lord Roberts then left by the London and North -Western 
Railway for Euston, and the men marched back to their respective 
camps at Aylesbury and Berkhampstead. Major- General Lord 
Chesham was present at the inspection, where as Inspector- 
General of Yeomanry Cavalry he had been staying since May 26th, 
and has personally directed a long day's skirmishing by the Bucks 
Hussars on the 27th, and on the 28th, had paid a visit to the camp 
of the Herts Imperial Yeomanry at Berkhampstead. The strength 
of the Bucks Imperial Yeomanry this year was 503 enrolled. 

Major the Hon. H. L. W. Lawson was gazetted to the 
command on October 18th, 1902, Major the Hon. E. S. Douglas- 
Pennant being appointed second in command. 

A regiment had been raised in Northamptonshire taking 120 
Yeomen from Bucks this year, and so now the recruiting area of 
the Bucks Hussars was restricted to its own county of Bucking- 
hamshire. 

In November 1902 the head-quarters of the 1st squadron 
were removed from Buckingham to Chesham, the four squadrons 



59 



standing in 1903 as follows : No. 1, Chesham ; No. 2, Stoney 
Stratford ; No. 3, Aylesbury; No. 4, High Wycombe; the 
regimental head-quarters being at Buckingham, where, from all 
that can be gathered, the head-quarters of the regiment had been 
since its formation. 

On May 12th the regiment came up for training at Daw's 
Hill Park, High Wycombe, and on the 26th Colonel Lawson 
unveiled a memorial tablet to all the men of that town who had 
fallen in the South African War, amongst whom were several 
Bucks Hussars, which had been placed in Wycombe Parish 
Church. 

On May 28th Major-General R. S. S. Baden-Powell, C. B., 
Inspector-General of Cavalry, made his official inspection of the 
Royal Bucks Hussars. The proceedings were somewhat interfered 
with about mid-day by an unprecedented thunderstorm. Never- 
theless, the regiment were put through a series of evolutions in the 
neighbourhood of the camp, and returned to their quarters, where 
the officers and men were briefly addressed by the inspecting 
officer, who complimented the regiment on its appearance and 
work. The training terminated next day, and Lieut. -Colonel H. 
Lawson, the commanding officer, in addressing the regiment 
prior to dismissal alluded to the words of congratulation addressed 
to them by Major-General Baden-Powell at the inspection, 
and said that that officer told him privately that he should 
very much like to have that regiment under his command on 
active service. 

The strength in 903 was 583 of all ranks (including 21 
officers), of whom 536 were present at the training. 

In the spring of 1904 the War Office most unwisely decided 
to reduce the establishment of the Yeomanry regiments from 596 
of all ranks to 476, the number of officers was not reduced, only 
the rank and file were touched, the Royal Bucks Hussars being thus 



60 



considerably over the strength. The regiment came up for training 
on May 12th, the training being held at Stowe Park, Buckingham, 
the men being under canvas as usual. Colonel Calley, 1st Life 
Guards, who carried out the official inspection, highly com- 
plimented the regiment. Baroness Kinloss presented the prizes won 
at the tournament and sports, and Colonel the Hon. H. L. W. 
Lawson (in command) thanked her for her kindness in allowing 
the corps to again camp at Stowe. He also referred to the fact 
that her late father, the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, did 
much for the regiment. The Baroness Kinloss gave a garden 
party to the officers and residents of the districts. 

A new badge was approved in September by the Army 
Council for the regiment, in lieu of the old Maltese cross. 

In bringing these incomplete notes to a close, one can only 
endorse the words of the County Committee w T ho arranged the 
Queen's reception at Slough on her return to Windsor in 1897, 
after the Diamond Jubilee celebration in London, who, in re- 
turning thanks to the regiment, remarked, " They turned out 
remarkably well, they had a very martial bearing, and it gave 
them great pleasure to know that they had such a good regiment 
of Yeomanry in the county," 



Z 




e^s 



61 



The Right Hon. The Baron Rothschild, P.C., G.C.V.O. 
Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire 



Che RigM Ron. 
Che Baron Rothschild, PX-, 6XV-0- 

Cord Cteutenant of Buckingbamsbire, 



BORN on November 8tli, 1840, Nathan Mayer, the eldest son of 
the late Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, was educated 
at King's College School and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
succeeded his uncle, Sir Anthony, as 2nd Baronet of his line in 
1876, and his father, as an Austrian Baron, on the death of that 
Prince of Finance three years later. In the meantime, for twenty 
years, from 1865 to 1885, he represented Aylesbury in Parliament, 
in the Liberal interests, a length of willing service that was only 
terminated by his being raised to the English Peerage on June 29th, 
1885. Five years previously, his Lordship generously presented the 
New Literary Society Building to that town. 

On April 17th, 1867, Lord Rothschild married Emma Louisa, 
the daughter of Baron Mayer Carl de Rothschild, and has, with 
other issue, a son, the Hon. Lionel Walter, who stood for Aylesbury 
for eleven years from 1899 to I 9 IO > when his health unfortunately 
necessitated his retirement, his successor being his cousin, the 
present Member for Aylesbury, Mr. Lionel N. Rothschild. 



63 



London numbers both Lord Rothschild and his son among 
her Lieutenants. His Lordship was made a member of the Privy 
Council, and the Knights' Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian 
Order was conferred upon him in 1902. 

Since 1889, his Lordship has acted as Lord Lieutenant for 
Buckingham, where his father, the Baron Lionel, acquired much 
property in the early seventies, at the same time that he purchased 
the present country seat of Tring Park in Hertfordshire, and the 
head of the great Banking Firm of N. M. Rothschild and Sons 
never allows business to interfere with the many local calls made 
on his valuable time. Philanthropic work throughout the County 
receives his active support, in which he is ably seconded by Lady 
Rothschild, who has made a practical study of nursing and its 
training, and is one of the most generous contributors to institutions 
of this kind. 

Many are the stories told of the Rothschild family, and their 
steady rise to princely wealth. Thn motto of their house, "Concordia, 
integvitas, industrial explains the secret of their success, coupled, 
it should be added, with an indomitable perseverance. 

In 1800, Nathan Mayer de Rothschild, the third son of 
Mayer Amschel Rothschild, and grandfather of his Lordship, came 
to England, where he died, in 1836, a Baron of the Austrian 
Empire, having achieved unique success in gigantic loan operations. 
His confidence in his wife, Hannah, the third daughter of Levi 
Barent Cohen, of London, was such, that he left all his property 
absolutely in her hands, to deal with as she pleased, not even 
stipulating what bequests were to be made to charities. Needless 
to say his trust was fully merited. 

Baron Lionel Nathan, the eldest son of Nathan Meyer de 
Rothschild, and the father of his Lordship, was born in New Court, 
St. Swithin's Lane, on November 22nd, 1808, and after receiving a 
Continental education, took over the management of the English 
Banking Business on the death of his father. 



64 



By his wife, and cousin, Charlotte, the daughter of Baron 
Charles de Rothschild, of Naples, he had three sons and two 
daughters, Lord Rothschild being the firstborn. Two years later, 
by Royal Licence, Lord Rothschild's father became a Baron of the 
Austrian Empire. No less than eighteen Government loans were 
negotiated by him, and in 1856, he was the means of raising 
sixteen million pounds for the English Government to defray the 
expenses of the Crimean War. 

His influence was felt on the other side of the Atlantic, 
where he was instrumental in founding the United States National 
Debt, whilst the Austrian Finances owed much to his active 
direction. 

On the conclusion of the Franco-German War in 1871, it 
was Baron Rothschild, in conjunction with other financiers, who 
undertook to guarantee the maintenance of foreign exchanges, a 
proceeding which was of great assistance to the French in the pay- 
ment of their indemnity. 

Five years later, a further colossal sum of ^"4,080,000 was 
advanced to the English Government, for the purchase of the Suez 
Canal Shares from the Khedive, a transaction that was commonly 
said to have resulted in a profit to the Rothschild Firm of no less 
than £"100,000. 

As the hero of that eleven years' struggle for the privilege of 
entering the House of Commons, Baron Lionel was successful in 
overthrowing a mere racial objection, that had stood all too long 
in the way of his advancement ; and when, at last, he was suffered 
to represent his City Electors, the Baron endowed a scholarship at 
the City of London School, as a graceful act of appreciation of 
their fidelity to his cause. This most generous of philanthropists, 
who, as often as not, gave anonymously, died on June 3rd, 1879, 
when he was succeeded by Sir Nathan Mayer, now Lord 
Rothschild, who emulated his father, in that he is the first Jew to 
enter the House of Lords. 



The Evelina Hospital for Children at Southwark was 
founded bv the late Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, M.P., for 
Aylesbury from 1885 to 1898, the husband of Evelina, the youngest 
daughter of Baron Lionel, in memory of her death in 1866. 

Lord Rothschild's Hertfordshire seat is at Tring Park, and 
his Town residence 148, Piccadilly, where, an ardent collector, like 
others of his family, many treasures of the world of art have found 
a resting place, including valuable pictures, such as Sir Joshua 
Reynolds' " Garric.k between Tragedy and Comedy," and '" Mrs. 
Lloyd," also Gainsborough's ' k Mrs. Sheridan," and '' Squire 
Hilyard," and many others. 

The attainment of his seventieth birthday was recently 
made the occasion of a presentation to Lord Rothschild by the 
United Synagogue, in the presence of a large assembly of friends. 

Lord Rothschild is a member of the Turf. Marlborough, St. 
James', and Brooks' Clubs. 



\ ^ 



'T 



um 



66 



The Right Hon. The Baron Addtngton, J P., M.A. 



Clx Ridbt Ron. 
CDe Baron flddington, 3.p., Ifl.fl. 



CHE present High Steward of Buckingham, Egerton Hubbard, 
the second Baron Addington, was born on December 29th, 
1842, being the eldest son of John Gellibrand, the 1st Lord 
Addington, by his marriage with the Hon. Maria Margaret Napier 
eldest daughter of William John, the 9th Lord Napier on May 19th, 

Finance and politics have found devoted and distinguished 
followers in this family. After graduating at Oxford, Lord 
Addington sat for Buckingham, in the Conservative interests, for 
no less than six years, prior to his accession to the title, from 1874 
to 1880, and for North Buckingham for three years, from 1886 to 
1889. On his father's death in that same year, and his consequent 
succession to the title, other duties claimed the new Lord 
Addington's attention. As partner in the well-known firm of 
Russia Merchants, Messrs. John Hubbard and Co., and Provincial 
Grand Master of Bucks from 1895 to 1908, His Lordship has 
evinced that strict attention to detail that bespeaks success. 
Always keenly interested in things military, Lord Addington was 



67 



formerly a Colonel in the Bucks Royal Volunteers, and holds the 
V.D. decoration, whilst he is at present Honorary Colonel of the 
Buckinghamshire Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry. In 
1880 he married Mary Adelaide, the daughter of the late Sir 
Wyndham Spencer Portal, the 1st Baronet of that name, by whom 
he has three sons and two daughters, his heir, the Hon. John 
Gellibrand Hubbard, B. A., having been born in 1893. The latter, too, 
shares his father's interest in the Bucks Battalion of the Oxfordshire 
Light Infantry, in which he holds the rank of Lieutenant. The 
late Lord Addington, the eldest son of John Hubbard, of Stratford 
Grove, Essex, by his wife, Marianna, the daughter of John Morgan, 
of Bramfield Place, Herts., was born on March 21st, 1805, and 
raised to the Peerage in 1887, and will long be remembered for his 
services in connection with the Directorship of the Bank of 
England, and Chairmanship of the Public Works Loan Commission. 
Whilst in the House of Commons, where he sat for Bucks in 1859, 
and from 1874 to 1887 for the City of London, he became an 
authority on Finance, his attention being directed especially to 
matters connected with Income Tax. Of this indeed he made an 
exhaustive study, and several pamphlets from his pen deal with the 
subject in a masterly manner, including one published in 1852 
entitled " How should the Income Tax be levied?' Two years 
later, despite the opposition of Mr. \V. E. Gladstone, at that time 
time Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Hubbard, as he then was, 
succeeded in carrying a motion for a select committee to inquire 
into its assessment. It may be added that many of his suggested 
improvements were largely adopted subsequently. Other matters 
which engaged his attention were the coinage, and things educa- 
tional, as well as ecclesiastical. In 1874, on August 6th, he was 
sworn a member of the Privy Council. And all this, the work of 
one, who from his birth had been considered delicate, so that his 
education was conducted privately, and for some part of his early 
life he lived in France, and attended a school at Bordeaux. He it 



US 



was, too, who found time and means to build and endow 
St. Alban's Church in Holborn, which was duly consecrated in 
1863. The occasion of the late Lord Addington's last speech in 
the House of Lords was the third reading of the Customs and 
Inland Revenue Bill on May 28th, 1889, and three months later 
he died at his beautiful seat at Addington Manor, and was laid 
to rest in St. Mary's Churchyard there, the Church itself having 
been restored by him. 

Addington Manor, Lord Addington's Buckinghamshire seat, 
was built in 1857 by the first Lord Addington, after the style of a 
French Chateau, the architect being Mr. P. Hardwick. Bricks 
were the materials used, together with stone quoins and dressings. 
Three towers were included in the scheme, and although the actual 
use of mullions to the windows was avoided by reason of its 
manifest inconvenience, the same picturesque effect was obtained 
by a skilful introduction of deep arches. The walls of the large 
entrance hall are lined with leather, and a magnificent old oak 
staircase leads to the upper rooms. Above the library window, 
prominent amid much ornate carving of the graceful leaves of 
vines and olives, is the inscription, " Donum Dei " whilst one of the 
towers bears another : — " Except the Lord build the House, their 
labour is but lost that build it." 

Without, a well-timbered park of some three hundred acres 
forms a graceful and pleasing setting to the mansion, and the fine 
conservatories add not a little to the pleasure of its inmates. 

As Lord of the Manor, and sole landowner, a Magistrate and 
a County Alderman for Buckinghamshire, Lord Addington has 
much to do in connection with local affairs. 

According to the Domesday Record, Addington was part of 
the land awarded to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, half-brother of the 
Conqueror, and after that turbulent priest's banishment, passed to 



69 



the Romenels, who, indeed, held it under him. To quote the 
Record itself : — 

Robert de Romenel holds of the Bishop of Bajeux in 
Edintone vi hides. The Arable vi caracates, two are in 
demesne ; there are eight villeins with ii cottagers, holding 
3 caracates, and a fourth may be made. There are 4 
servants, and meadow vi caracates. It was worth, and 
now is worth 60s. In Edward the Confessor's time 100s. 
Earl Godwin's tenant held this manor and could sell 
it. 

In subsequent years, Addington appears to have passed to 
the FitzBarnards, from whom it was bought at the beginning of 
the fourteenth century by John Blacket, thence it was conveyed to 
Sir John Molins, and by female heirs, to the Hungerford and 
Hastings families. The Curzons became its owners, by purchase, 
in 1532, and sold it to the Busbys nearly a hundred years later. 
Thence it passed to the Pouletts. And in this connection, it may 
be mentioned that St. Mary's Church, at Addington, contains many 
monuments to the Busbys, as well as one to the Pouletts. 

Traces of an older manor house still remain, including the 
stables, which are dated 1642. Above them is an ornamental 
turret, which at one time was able to boast of a clock. 

Near the Church the ancient village stocks are still to be 
seen, grimly reminiscent of former days, when the custom of public 
punishment was by no means the least of the indignities heaped on 
malefactors. 

Lady Addington, as a member of the Portal family, is 
descended from the Spanish Portals, who were seated in Languedoc 
at the end of the eleventh century, and her direct ancestor, the 
Hugenot Henri Portal, settled in Hampshire, when a hostile 
France exiled him on account of his religion. Being thus forced to 



70 



do something for his living in a strange land, M. Portal erected a 
paper mill at Laverstoke on the River Test. Contrary to the 
general run of things, success attende 1 his efforts, bank note paper 
was his speciality, and he contrived so to please the Bank of 
England authorities with his article, that they accorded him the 
unique privilege of supplying them with the well known flimsey. 
Needless to say, this has continued in the family ever since. Lady 
Addington's father, the late Sir Wyndham Spencer Portal, the first 
Baronet of the name, was also Chairman of the London and South 
Western Railway, and among his greatest treasures was a framed 
portrait of Queen Victoria, presented by herself, together with a 
letter gracefully alluding to the number of times Sir Wyndham had 
shared Her Majesty's journeys on the Royal Train. 

The youngest brother of Lord Addington, the Hon. Evelyn 
Hubbard, is now one of the Directors of the Bank of England, and 
he too married into the Portal family, his wife, Eveline Maude, 
being the fourth daughter of the late Sir Wyndham Spencer Portal, 
and younger sister of Lady Addington. As a Conservative, the 
Hon. Mr. Hubbard contested North Bucks twice, in 1889 and 1891, 
and Plymouth four years later, whilst from 1895 to 1898 he was an 
Alderman of the London County Council, besides representing the 
Brixton Division of Lambeth in Parliament from 1896 to 1900. 

There is at Addington, a charity represented by the interest 
of ^"720 in the Consols, which is applicable to the relief of the poor, 
and for assisting the children of those in indigent circumstances, by 
giving them some measure of education, and apprenticing them to 
a calling. 

Lord Addington's town address is 7, Campden Hill Court, 
Kensington, W. His Lordship is a member of the Carlton 
Club. 



7 1 



72 



The Late Sir John Aivd, Bt., J. P. 



Ok Cate Sir 3obn Aird, Bt., 3.p. 



B 



Y the recent, much to be regretted death of the late Sir John 
Aird, of Wilton Park, Buckinghamshire and the Metropolis 
have alike sustained a mutual loss. 



A staunch Conservative, as Member for North Paddington, 
Sir John held that seat from 1887 until 1906. 

Born on December 3rd, 1833, the son of the late John Aird 
of Great Cumberland Place, by Agnes, his wife, the daughter of 
Charles Bennett of Lambeth, Surrey, Sir John was of Scottish 
extraction, being the grandson of Robert Aird, of Fortrose, in 
Rosshire. 

He married, on September 6th 1855, Sarah, the daughter of 
the late Benjamin Smith, of Lewisham, Kent, by whom he has, 
with other issue, two sons. His heir, the present baronet, also 
Sir John, was born on November 6th 1861. 

As a prominent member of the firm of Messrs. John Aird 
and Co., contractors, Sir John's shrewd business abilities were of 
immense value to his house, and among the huge undertakings 



73 



with which his name will always be associated, is the successful 
damming of the Nile at Assouan. From 1899 to 1902 this 
stupendous work was in progress, the whole scheme having been 
evolved by Sir William Willcocks, K.C.M.G., when Director 
General of the Reservoirs of Egypt, the aim and object of the 
whole work being to safeguard Egyptian Agriculture from the 
disastrous effects of a low Nile. 

In 1901, Sir John was created a baronet, and decorated with 
the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Medjidie. 

An honorary Lieut. -Colonel of the Engineer and Railway 
Staff Corps, a Commission of Lieutenancy for the City of London, 
a Justice of the Peace for Middlesex, and a Mason, the millionaire 
baronet yet found time to discharge his multifarious duties, and 
attend to the pressure of business. 

The present baronet, the second Sir John Aird, by his 
marriage with Alicia Ellen, the daughter of James Hall Renton, of 
Park Lane, has two sons and two daughters ; his heir, John 
Renton, was born on August 7th, 1898. 




74 



Henry Eden Allhusen, Esq., B.A., D.L., J. P. 



fienrp €den flllbusen, €sq., B.fl., D.C., J.p. 



CHE eldest son of the late Henry Christian Allhusen, by his 
wife, Elizabeth Alice, daughter of the late Thomas Eden, of 
Norton Hall, Gloucestershire, Mr. Henry Eden Allhusen was 
born on August 20th, 1 867, and was educated at Cheltenham College, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 
1890, the same year that he succeeded his grandfather, Christian 
Allhusen, in the Stoke Court property. 

Six years later, on July 21st, 1896, he married Mary Dorothy 
Osma, younger daughter of the late Colonel the Hon. John 
Constantine Stanley, of the Grenadier Guards, second son of 
Edward John, 2nd Baron Stanley, of Alderley, and brother of 
the fourth and present Baron Stanley, who is also Lord Shefned. 
Colonel Stanley's wife, and the mother of Mrs. Allhusen was Mary 
Susan Elizabeth, the daughter of Keith William Stewart-Mackenzie, 
of Seaforth, afterwards the wife of the late Lord St. Helier (better 
known as Sir Francis Jeune), and one of the most brilliant 
hostesses of Queen Victoria's reign, an earnest worker in the cause 
of charity, and gifted moreover with an able pen, as contributions 
to the leading magazines and reviews on social, and other 
questions have frequently demonstrated. 

75 



A son and heir, Henry Christian Stanley, was born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Allhusen on November 21st, 1899, the other issue of the 
marriage being two daughters, Helena Madeleine Mary, and 
Dorothea Elizabeth. 

Mr. Allhusen is a Magistrate, and Deputy Lieutenant for 
Buckinghamshire. 

In politics a moderate Conservative, he sat for Salisbury from 
1897 to 1900, and from 1900 to 1906 represented Central Hackney. 
Moreover, in 1905, Mr. Allhusen also filled the honorary office of 
Assistant Private Secretary to the Right Honourable St. John 
Brodrick (now Viscount Midleton, and married to Mrs. Allhusen's 
only sister) at that time Secretary of State for India. 

Mr. Allhusen's grandfather, Christian Allhusen, of Elswick 
Hall, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Stoke Court, was the first to 
connect this family with Buckinghamshire in the year 1871. He 
was the son of a merchant in Kiel, Carl Christian Friedrich 
Allhusen, on whom Marshal Davoust quartered himself during the 
Napoleonic wars at the beginning of the last century. Born in 
1806, he was a Magistrate for both Durham and Buckinghamshire, 
and also served as a Deputy Lieutenant for Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
and as President of its Chamber of Commerce. He was the owner 
of large chemical works on the banks of the Tyne and was a 
prominent personage in the commercial life of Newcastle for over 
fifty years. By his wife. Anne, the daughter of John Shield, of 
Broomhaugh, Northumberland, he had a large family. His eldest 
son, Henry Christian, the father of the present Mr. Allhusen, of 
Stoke Court, was a distinguished leader of the Volunteer move- 
ment in the north of England and in i860 he raised the 1st New- 
castle Artillery which corps he commanded till his death in 1871. 

Mr. Allhusen's family is also closely connected with 
Buckinghamshire by ties other than those of residence as his 
brother, Major Allhusen of the 9th Lancers married the elder 

7 6 



daughter of Mr. Swithinbank, of Denham Court, and his sister 
Margaret married the eldest son of Mr. Hanbury, of Blythewood. 

Stoke Court, gains additional interest in that it is an enlarge- 
ment of the original house in which the poet, Gray, lived with his 
mother and aunt from 1742 to 1753. The famous Elegy is known 
to have been begun about the beginning of this stay, and although 
much of the work was executed at Cambridge, Gray returned to 
the scene of his poem, Stoke Pogis, to finish it. The house was 
much enlarged about 1845, by Mr. Penn, its then owner, so that it 
no longer resembles externally the " Compact box of red brick, 
with sash windows,'" as Gray described the residence, then known 
as West End Cottage. But internally apart from decorative 
alterations, several of the rooms of the old house still remain, and 
on the rising ground about a quarter of a mile from the house 
there still stands the old Summer house from which Gray may 
have obtained his distant prospect of Eton College. 

Within Stoke Pogis Church is a tomb to Mary Antrobus, 
the poet's aunt, and " Dorothy Gray, the careful, tender mother of 
many children, ol whom one alone had the misfortune to survive 
her," and that one, the poet, was, by his express desire, afterwards 
buried within the same vault. 

Without, in the churchyard, is a monument to his memory, 
bearing quotations from his Elegy, and other poems, erected by 
Mr. John Penn. 

Mr. Allhusen is a member of the Carlton, White's, the 
Coaching Club, etc. ; a member of the Bucks County Council ; serves 
on the Committee of the Surgical Aid Society ; was formerly on 
Committees of Navy League and Imperial Maritime League ; and 
is Vice-Chairman of the South Bucks Conservative Association. 



77 



7 8 



Rfiss Andrewes, of Maids' Morton Manor 



l»iss Andrews of maids' D)orton manor. 



mISS MARY HENRIETTA TURNER HUTTON 
ANDREWES is the only daughter of the late Rev. 
William Andrewes Uthwatt, Lord of the Manors of Maids' 
Morton and Great Linford, the latler manor passing at his death 
to his next surviving brother, the late Augustus Thomas Uthwatt, 
who died in 1885, the uncle of its present owner, Mr. William 
Francis Edolph Andrewes Uthwatt, who is first cousin to Miss 
Andrewes. 

Through her mother, Mary, the daughter and co-heir of the 
Rev. James Long Hutton Long, Rector of Maids' Morton, and who 
brought this property into the Andrewes family on her marriage, 
Miss Andrewes is descended by a female branch from King 
Edward III., through a daughter of that fine old Duke of Lancaster, 
John of Gaunt. 

Maids' Morton derives its name from the founders of its 
beautiful old Church of St. Edmund's, two maiden ladies of the 
Peovre family, who built the Church about 1450. Their arms are 
painted over the the northern doorway, together with an inscrip- 
tion recording their pious act. It may be added that at the 



79 



beginning of the reign of the first Edward, the Bedfordshire 
Peyvres, or Peovres, held much of the land here. The Church 
itself is one of the most noteworthy in the County, being a fine 
example of the perpendicular style, its treatment also is uniformly 
harmonious. In the time of Cromwell it fared badly, for the 
beautiful stained glass in its windows was mostly shattered by the 
rude soldiery. The extent of their depredations may best be judged 
from the following entry in the Parish Registers at the beginning 
of the Civil War : — 

Anno 1642. This year the cross, which had like with 
its fall to have beat out the brains of him that did it, was 
cut off the top of the steeple by the soldiers at the com- 
mand of Colonel Purefoy of Warwickshire. 

There is also another interesting entry under date of 1653, 
explaining that although " This year came into force an act of the 
usurper, Cromwell, that children ought not to be baptised, and 
about marriages by justices of the peace," the rector, Matthew 
Bate, had firmly continued to baptise and perform marriages 
according to the rites of the Church of England, and in defiance of 
the Parliamentary Edict. 

There still remain perforations in the old oak door, that are 
generally ascribed to the work of the intruding Roundheads. 

Among the most interesting monuments is one to Mrs. 
Penelope Verney, the wife of the Hon. Richard Willoughby de 
Broke, whose death in 17 18 is thus recorded : — 

Under this stone doth lye, 

As much virtue as could die ; 
Which, when alive did vigor give ; 

To as much beauty as could live. 

In 1882, the chancel was restored by the late Rector, the 
Rev. R. W. Johnstone, and the nave being treated in a similar 



No 



manner, Miss Andrewes generously contributed £"650 towards the 
total cost of this part of the work. 

Remains of mural paintings still exist on the chancel 
walls, one being generally considered to represent The Last 
Supper. 

It was Sir George Moore, of Maids' Morton, who was created 
a Baronet in 1665, who disposed of his estate in this parish to Dr. 
George Bate, who was born there at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, and subsequently enjoyed the honour of being 
successively appointed as chief physician to Charles I., Cromwell, 
and Charles II., preserving his appointment through all the 
vicissitudes of State, with an assiduity that recalls the skill of the 
Vicar of Bray, although the story runs that, to gain the third and 
last appointment, the doctor found it necessary to circulate a 
rumour that the Protector's days were shortened by means of a 
draught he gave him. 

Among the Maids' Morton charities is Elmer's, which pro- 
vides £"3 per annum, £2 to be given to a poor man, and £1 to a 
needy woman, while Scott's charity, being the interest on 
£"158. 2s. 6d., is distributed in the form of bread, which is given to 
the poor. 

Miss Andrewes is the patron of one living. 



^XK 



Si 



82 



Waldorf Astor, Esq. 




Waldorf Astor, Esq. 




Cliveden. 



Waldorf ilstor, esq. 



n 



ATURE and Art have combined to make Cliveden, the 
Buckinghamshire seat of Mr. Waldorf Astor, an example of 
rare loveliness. 



Situated on high ground, and bordered below by the 
Thames, that threads its way through the woody slopes of this 
exquisite estate, like a silver riband linking up the various shades 
of green, the ideal landscape thus presented, lingers long in the 
memory. Those hanging woods, as they are called, of famous 
yews, that in many cases cling to the hill sides, with their gnarled 
roots exposed to the air, and whereon in due season, the wild 
clematis and other c limbing plants fling a profusion of blossom, 
shelter drives and walks of matchless beauty, that, in Springtime, 
insensibly recall the picture conjured up by a poet singer of our 
day:— 

Upon her nest of twigs the wood-dove broods; 

The cooing note rolls softly through young green, 
A woodpecker is tapping on unseen; 

The hum of insects fills the heated woods. 



83 



The cooing note rolls softly through young green; 

The sun-discs dance where golden light intrudes; 
The hum of insects fills the heated woods 

As on the beech tree's knotty roots we lean. 

Lying only two and a half miles from Taplow, Cliveden 
was purchased from the Mansfields, by the second Duke of Bucking- 
ham, the favourite of King Charles II, who expended huge sums in 
laying out the grounds to best advantage, and erecting a palatial 
residence. The beautiful terrace over four hundred feet in length, 
adjoining the south front of the present building, is supposed to be 
some of the Duke's work, also the walks through the grounds, and 
alcoves. But, having passed into the hands of the Earl of Orkney, 
who greatly improved both the estate and the fine house, Cliveden 
was destroyed by fire at the close of the eighteenth century. Later 
Sir G. Warrender bought the property and in 1830 completely restored 
the house. Again misfortune overtook it, a second fire occurred in 
1849, and the Duke of Sutherland, its then owner, erected the 
present mansion after designs by Sir Charles Barry. Imposing 
simplicity is the keynote. The centre is taken from Inigo Jones' 
design of old Somerset House, and connected, by means of corridors, 
with wings on either side, the work being carried out in brick, 
cement and Portland stone. Within a fine park of three hundred 
acres, and standing on a wide lawn, on high ground, the house 
thus commands fine views all over the Thames valley and 
surrounding country ; the North Front, wherein is the principal 
entrance, being particularly fine. The hall is paved with Minton's 
encaustic tiles, and the fine suite of rooms on the ground floor, all 
have access to the terrace. 

Other notable features in the grounds are the Clock Tower 
one hundred feet high, with balconies on either side, at a distance 
of fifty three feet from the ground, and a magnificent view from the 
look-out building, within nineteen feet of the top of the structure ; 
an octagonal Temple in the Park, built after Leoni, in 1735, and 



H 



an Italian Pavilion, which was intended by the first Earl of Orkney 
to commemorate the Duke of Marlborough's victories in the 
Netherlands, wherein the Earl had borne his share, as one of the 
Duke's most brilliant generals. Yet another interesting feature 
among the many is a French garden of about five acres in extent, 
designed by the Dowager Duchess of Sutherland, and planted with 
rare flowers and exquisite flowering shrubs. 

For several summers, too, Cliveden was honoured as the 
residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, the father of King George III., 
and it was here, in a most romantic setting, that the poet 
Thompson, wrote the masque, " Alfred." Royalty, at Cliveden, 
witnessed its first performance, when the martial strains of " Rule 
Britannia" were heard for the first time: — amid surroundings 
indicative of the utmost peace and quietude. 

Mr. Waldorf Astor, the present owner of Cliveden, and one 
of the chief landowners in the neighbourhood of Taplow, is the 
eldest son of Mr. William Waldorf Astor, of Hever Castle, Kent, 
(who purchased Cliveden from the Duke of Westminster in 1893) 
by the late Mary Dahlgren, the daughter of the late James 
William Paul, of Philadelphia. 

Born in 1879, Mr. Astor received his education from Eton 
and New College, Oxford, where he graduated as Bachelor of Arts 
in 1904, and two years later, married Nancy Witcher, the daughter 
of Chiswell Dabney Langhorne, of Mirador, Greenwood, Virginia, 
(and widow of Robert Gould Shaw), by whom he has with other 
issue, a son and heir, William Waldorf, who was born in 1907. 

Like his father, Mr. Astor takes a keen interest in local 
matters, and is on the roll of High Sheriff for the adjoining County 
of Berkshire for 19 12, Mr. William Waldorf Astor, having filled a 
like office for Buckinghamshire in 1908. 



35 



It was in 1890, on the death of his father, John Jacob Astor, 
that Mr. William Waldorf Astor, his only child, by the late 
Charlotte Augusta Gibbes, succeeded to the vast family property, 
at the age of forty-two, after a strenuous career of usefulness that 
included three years devotion to politics in the Legislature of the 
State of New York, considerable experience as a barrister, and the 
invaluable insight afforded into matters connected with the estate 
by reason of his has having assisted his father for many years in the 
management of it. In addition to these manifold duties, Mr. 
Astor held the office of United States Minister to Italy from 
1882 to 1885, and is the author of Valentino, Phavoalis Daughter, 
Sforza, and many other stories. It will be remembered that in 
1893, his purchase of the " Pall Mall Gazette and Budget," con- 
stituted from a journalistic point of view, the event of the year, 
and his naturalisation as a British subject, followed six years 
later. 

It was Mr. William Waldorf Astor who built the Waldorf 
Hotel, in New York, which adjoins the Astoria, built by his cousin, 
Mr. John Jacob Astor, and the two now form one building under 
the well-known name of the Waldorf Astoria. 

Mr. Waldorf Astor, of Cliveden, is a member of the 
Bachelors' and Marlborough Clubs. 



2Qg 




86 



Lieut. -Colonel Francis Tyvingham Higgins Bernard, M.A., J.P. 



£leur-Col. Francis Cpringbam Digcjins 
Bernard, nm., XP. 



BORN in 1864, Colonel Francis Tyringham Higgins Bernard 
is the son of the late eminent Q.C. Joseph Napier Higgins, of 
Winchendon Priory, by his wife, Sophia Elizabeth, the 
younger daughter and co-heir of Sir Thomas Tyringham Bernard, 
of Winchendon Priory, the sixth and last baronet of his line, who 
died on May 8th, 1883. 

Educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, the 
subject of the present sketch assumed the additional name of 
Bernard by deed poll in 1897, and the same year married Evelyn 
Georgiana, the eldest daughter of Philip James Digby Wykeham, 
of Tythrop House, and thus connected his own with one of the 
oldest families in Oxfordshire, where the Wykehams of Swalcliffe 
Park have been seated from a very early date. 

Colonel Bernard has the advantage of a wide experience in 
men and matters. He is a barrister, and was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn. As a soldier, he has rendered military service in 
connection with the 18th Middlesex Rifle Volunteers, in which he 
held the rank of Major, was Captain of the Royal Bucks Hussars 



87 



Imperial Yeomanry, and at the present time is Major and Hon. 
Lieut. -Col. of the 3rd Battalion of the Oxfordshire and Bucking- 
hamshire Light Infantry. As a politician, he is one of the best 
known Liberal-Unionists of North Bucks, and put up a good fight 
for that constituency during the last election. He is a convincing 
speaker and an ardent believer in Tariff Reform. 

The old Bernard family, from which Colonel Bernard is 
descended, through his mother, Mrs. Napier Higgins, derives from 
Godfrey Bernard, who was living at Wansford in Yorkshire, in the 
time of Henry III. The baronetcy in the family dates from 1769, 
when it was bestowed upon Sir Francis Bernard of Nettleham, in 
Lincolnshire, Governor of Massachusetts Bay from 1760 to 1770, in 
recognition of his able services in furthering the views of the Home 
Government over seas. Sir Francis, too, was the first of his family 
to hold the Nether Winchendon Estate in Buckinghamshire, which 
he inherited from his cousin, Jane, the wife of William Beresford, 
in 1 77 1, and herself the cousin of its former owner, Francis 
Tyringham. 

Dying in 1779 at Aylesbury, Sir Francis Bernard was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest surviving son, Sir John Bernard, who was in 
the Navy, and served in the West Indies, where he died, unmarried, 
at Dominica, in 1809, and the title then passed to his brother, that 
eminent philanthropist, Sir Thomas Bernard, intimately associated 
with the fortunes of the Foundling Hospital, of which he became 
Treasurer, and afterwards Vice- President. In other directions the 
claims of the sick and needy were given generous support. The 
school for the Indigent Blind remembers his name with gratitude 
while Fever, and other similar Institutions, owe much to his 
untiring efforts. The fourth baronet, Sir Scrope Bernard-Morland, 
who succeeded Sir Thomas as brother, and heir, assumed the 
additional name of Tyringham by royal license in 1789, and in 
181 1 took the name of Bernard-Morland. For eighteen years he 
represented Aylesbury in the House of Commons from 1789 to 1807, 



88 



a length of time that comprised three Parliaments, and subsequently 
sat for St. Mawes through six, from 1806 to 1830. His third, but 
eldest surviving son, Sir Francis Bernard-Morland, died unmarried 
at the age of eighty-five in 1876, when the title passed to the sixth 
and last baronet, Sir Thomas Tyringham Bernard, his brother, and 
grandfather of Colonel Bernard. 

As member for Aylesbury from 1857 to 1865, Sheriff of 
Buckinghamshire in the year 1816 to 1817, and sometime Lieut. - 
Col. of the Buckinghamshire Militia, Sir Thomas was ever mind- 
ful of the claims of his county. He was thrice married, by his 
first wife he had two sons, who both predeceased him, and two 
daughters, of whom the younger, Sophia Elizabeth, became the 
wife of Mr. Joseph Napier Higgins, and thus the mother of Colonel 
Bernard. 

Chearsley Hill, near Aylesbury, Colonel Bernard's Bucking- 
hamshire seat, is pleasantly situated on high ground, and enjoys 
many fine views of the neighbouring district, of which the subject 
of this article is one of the principal landowners. 

Colonel Bernard is a Justice of the Peace for Buckingham- 
shire, the patron of one living and a member of White's and Boodle's 
Clubs. 



^ 







89 



go 



Colonel William Edivard Bleivitt, C.B., C.M.G. 



Colonel William eduwd Blewin, C.B., 

C.ID.6. 



CHE Manor House on Bierton Hill, only some one-and-a- 
half miles from the market place of the picturesque old town 
of Aylesbury, and at present the residence of Colonel Blewitt 
is an imposing Elizabethan building, composed of red brick and 
stone, dating from 1852, when the Lord of the Manor, Mr. Acton 
Tindal, who succeeded his father and grandfather as Clerk of the 
Peace for Buckinghamshire, purchased the property from the 
Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, and built the present mansion, 
the architect being Mr. David Brandon, of London. 

The pastoral beauty of Mid-Bucks is seen to great advan- 
tage from the house, which stands in a commanding position, and 
was formerly the home of the gifted Mrs Acton Tindal, the poetess, 
who has been described as having" the mind of an antiquary," the 
authoress of " Lines and Leaves," and " Rhymes and Legends," 
who died in 1879, eleven years before her husband, then Lord of 
the Manor. 

The son of the late William Blewitt, of The Dove House, 
Pinner, Colonel Blewitt was born September^th, 1854. Harrow 
numbers him proudly among her sons. Later, having chosen the 



91 



Army as a profession, he passed to the Royal Military Academy at 
Woolwich, and in 1874, the Royal Artillery afforded him his first 
practical experience of military life. Ten years later he married 
Harriett Agnes, the daughter of the late James Rigby, of Moss 
House, West Derby, and widow of R. A. FitzGerald, by whom he 
has two sons and one daughter. 

With the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa in 1899, 
Colonel Blewitt was among the first officers at the front, and took 
part in the stubbornly-contested action of Elandslaagte on October 
21st of that year, under Major-General French, that resulted in a 
victory for our arms ; nine days later he was in the thick of the 
battle of Lombard's Kop, subsequently bearing his full share of the 
weary one hundred and nineteen days' defence of Ladysmith, that 
will live long in the minds of men, and the action that took place 
on January 6th, 1900. The value of his services may be estimated 
by the fact that he was twice mentioned in the despatches by Sir 
George White, and was the recipient of the Queen's Medal and two 
clasps, besides being admitted to the Companionship of St. 
Michael and St. George. Since 1907, Colonet Blewitt has filled 
the position of Director of the Royal Artillery at Headquarters, 
having the rank of temporary Brigadier-General, and in 1908, 
he received the further honour of the Companionship of the Bath. 

In Cambridge Street, Aylesbury, stands the modern red-brick 
structure of the Church of St. John the Evangelist, intended as a 
chapel of ease to the parish Church. At various times, the building 
has been enlarged, as opportunity offered, the nave and chancel 
being added in 1894, an< ^ carved oak choir stalls seven years later. 
In 1906, Mrs. Blewitt of the Manor House, generously defrayed the 
cost of a belfry, containing three tubular bells. 

Colonel Blewitt is a member of the Army and Navy Club. 



92 



John Irvine Bosivell, Esq., M.D., J. P. 



3oDn Iroine Bosiyell, esq.. ITC.D., 3.p. 



CO Crawley Grange, now the residence of Dr. John Irvine 
Boswell, much historical interest is attached, in that it is 
believed to have been built by Cardinal Wolsey, and when 
the latter fell from his high estate, the Grange was confiscated by 
his fickle master, King Henry VIII., and subsequently passed to the 
Hatchetts, from whom it was purchased b) the Selby-Lowndes, 
who, in their turn, transferred it to the younger brother of the 
celebrated biographer of the famous Dr. Johnson, Thomas David 
Boswell. 

A charming feature in a pleasing landscape, whether the 
Cardinal actually built the Grange or not, and it seems most 
probable that he did so, the architecture of the beautifully mellowed 
red brick building with stone dressings, mullioned windows and 
projecting porch, undoubtedly belongs to the Tudor period. 

93 



Writing in 1848, Lady Chatterton, at that time on a visit to 
Mr. Boswell at Crawley Grange, speaks of the house as " A very 
picturesque old place," adding, " It is interesting from having been 
at one time the residence of Cardinal Wolsey." The centre gable 
contains the entrance porch surmounted by the Boswell arms, with 
a Latin inscription: — "The Lord bless thy going out and thy 
coming in." 

Within the hall, a carved table derives peculiar interest from 
the tradition that it formerly served as the Cardinal's sideboard, 
whilst the arms of that great man are over the chimney piece, 
exquisitely carved in wood, the last being of Italian workmanship. 

There is also strong ground for the belief, from the appearance 
of the Royal arms on one of the oak shutters, in the hall, that 
Queen Elizabeth herself once honoured the Grange with a visit. 

Born in 1858, Dr. John Irvine Boswell, now an M.D. of 
London, is the son of John Alexander Corrie Boswell, of the Indian 
Civil Service. In 1884 he married Ellen, the daughter of Edgar 
Home, of The Hill, Witley, in Surrey. 

His town residence is 17 Buckingham Gate, S.W., but Dr. 
Boswell finds much in sympathy with his taste for all outdoor 
recreations in the peaceful surroundings of his beautiful old world 
home in Northern Buckinghamshire. 

A Conservative or rather a Liberal Unionist in politics, and 
a Justice of the Peace for both Kent and Buckinghamshire, Dr. 
Boswell is numbered among the members of The Reform, 
Automobile, Bath and Hurlingham Clubs. 



94 



Lieut. -Colonel Wentworth Grenville Atkins -Bowyer, R.E,, 

(retired) J. P. 



Cieut.Colonel UlentiDortl) Grcnville Atkins- 
Boioper, R. €. Retired, 3. p. 



CHE heir presumptive to the dual baronetcy of the old Bowyer 
family, the creations dating from 1660 and 1794, is Lieut. 
Col. Wentworth Grenville Atkins-Bowyer, of Weston 
Manor, near Olney, in Northern Buckinghamshire. 

Born on" November 10th 1850, the subject of the present 
sketch is the eldest son of the late Rev. William Henry Wentworth 
Atkins-Bowyer, by his second wife, Charlotte, the daughter of the 
late Captain William Wells, R.N. Colonel Bowyer's great-grand- 
father Richard, the fifth son of Sir William Bowyer, the 3rd Bt., 
of the first creation, was the first to assume the prefix surname of 
Atkins, in accordance with the will of Sir Richard Atkins, Bt., of 
Clapham. By his marriage with Elizabeth Brady in 1773, he had 
two sons, the elder being William, of Braywick Grove and 
Clapham, the grandfather of Colonel Atkins-Bowyer, and sometime 



95 



Brigade Major to the forces stationed at Halifax in Nova Scotia. 
This gentleman's wife, Frances, the daughter of the Secretary of 
that province, the Hon. Behning Wentworth, bore him four sons 
and seven daughters, his second son being the Rev. William Henry 
Wentworth, Rector of Clapham, and father of Colonel Wentworth 
Grenville Atkins-Bowyer. 

After receiving his education at Radley, the latter joined 
the Royal Engineers, and war with Afghanistan having broken 
out in 1878, ably sustained his share in the two years' active 
service thereby involved. It was subsequent to his retirement 
from the Royal Engineers with the rank of Major in 1896 that 
upon the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa, the Government 
gladly availed themselves of the services of so experienced and 
gallant an officer, and on the conclusion of the War in 1902, in 
grateful recognition, promoted him to be Lieut. -Colonel of the 
Reserve of Officers. 

On October 29th 1883, Colonel Atkins-Bowyer married Eva 
Mary, the daughter of Major General Charles Stuart Lane, also a 
hero of the Afghan War, and an Indian Mutiny veteran. A son 
and heir, George Edward Wentworth, was born to Colonel and 
Mrs. Atkins-Bowyer on January 16th 1886, who graduated at New 
College, Oxford as a Bachelor of Arts in 1909, and is now a 
Lieutenant in the Bucks Battalion of the Oxfordshire and Bucking- 
hamshire Light Infantry. 

Of twelfth century date, the Bowyers are descended from 
Alfred Bowyer, who was living at the time of Henry I. Among 
his descendants, Sir William Bowyer, knight, held the office of 
teller of the Exchequer, and bought Denham Court, during the 
reign of James I. His grandson, the 1st Bt., of the earlier creation, 
Sir William Bowyer, of Denham Court, represented Buckingham- 
shire for twenty years in Parliament, and was frequently the host 
of Dryden, who derived valuable assistance from the baronet's 
undoubted literary abilities in his Translation of Virgil. 



96 



On the fifth baronet of the first creation, Admiral Sir 
George Bowyer, the third son of Sir William Bowyer, the 3rd Bt., 
was bestowed the honour of a second baronetcy in 1794 in 
recognition of his share in Lord Howe's victory over the French 
Fleet off Brest on June 1st of that year, a victorv that involved a 
loss of no less than 8,000 Frenchmen and 1,200 Englishmen. The 
present occupant of the title is the gallant Admiral's great-grand- 
son, Sir George Henry Bowyer, 9th and 5th Bt. of the dual 
creations. 

Weston Manor, Weston Underwood, a little over a mile 
from Olnev, the seat of Lieut. -Colonel Atkins-Bowyer, was long 
inseparably connected with the fortunes of that great Roman 
Catholic familv, the Throckmortons ; the old house was demolished 
soon after the death of the 6th baronet of that line, Sir George 
Throckmorton, about 1827; and in December 1898 the estate was 
purchased by Colonel Atkins-Bowyer of Sir William Throgmorton 
for £"40,500. 

Four stone piers, together with some of the stabling are the 
only remains of the older house. The present stone mansion is 
well situated, the seventy five acres of parkland being studded 
with stately avenues of beech, chestnuts, limes and elms, the 
delight of Cowper in former days. 

Memories of the poet cluster around Weston Underwood, 
and his friendship with Sir John Courtenay Throckmorton and his 
wife, his delight in The Wilderness, and the lovely scenery of the 
Weston neighbourhood were among the happiest recollections of 
his life. The fidelity of the poet's descriptions of the natural 
beauty of the place is remarkable. Scene after scene in " The 
Task" conjures up true and exquisite pictures of Weston's wood- 
beauty. The approach to the chestnut avenue is thus melodiously 
depicted : — 



97 



Descending now but cautious, lest too fast 
A sudden steep, upon a rustic bridge 

We pass a gulf, in which the willows dip 

Their pendent boughs, stooping as if to drink. 

Hence, ankle deep in rnoss and flow'ry thyme, 
We mount again, and feel at every step 

Our foot half sunk in hillocks green and soft, 
Raised by the mole, the miner of the soil. 



The summit gained, behold the proud alcove 
That crowns it ! yet not all its pride secure 

The grand retreat from injuries impress'd 

By rural carvers, who, with knives deface 

The pannels, leaving an obscure, rude name 
In characters uncouth, and spelt amiss. 

And in the dim distance : — 

O'er those, but far beyond (a spacious map 
Of hill and valley interposed between) 
The Ouse dividing the well-watered land, 

Now glitters in the sun, and now retires, 
As bashful, yet impatient to be seen. 

On his sometime home at Weston Underwood, Cowper has 
bequeathed the immortality of his deathless Muse. 

The present lord of Weston Manor and chief landowner is 
Colonel Atkins-Bowyer. He is a Justice of the Peace for Bucking- 
hamshire, and in the discharge of the duties therein involved, as 
well as the innumerable calls upon his time that befall a model, 
and resident landowner, he finds ample occupation for his days 
amidst ideal surroundings. 

Lieut. -Colonel Bowyer is the patron of one living and a 
member of the Naval and Military Club. 



Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, Bt , M.A., M.D., M.R.C.S., 

F.R.C.P. 



Sir 3obn Francis ftarpin Broadbent, Bt., 

IW.H., fl).D., Ifl.R.C.S., FRCP. 



RALEFIELD, about half a mile from the pretty little 
Buckinghamshire township of Wendover is the property and 
country seat of Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, the 
well-known heart specialist, who, like his famous father, the late 
Sir William Henry Broadbent, finds in the peaceful beauty of 
Eastern Bucks, a welcome rest from the arduous labours of a busy 
life. 

Nestling among the Chiltern Hills, Wendover would verily 
seem to have been gradually left behind in the advancing march 
of years. More than three centuries ago, Leland wrote of it, as " A 
pretty through-fare towne, having two streets well builded with 
tymbre", and the same description still holds good. In past times, 
Wendover Manor derived interest as having once formed part of the 
dowry of Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII., its 
other claim to fame being a dual parliamentary one, in that it sent 
members to Parliament as early as 1300, and prior to its 
disenfranchisement in 1832, was represented by some of the most 
brilliant politicians of the time, including John Hampden, Sir 
Richard Steele, Edmund Burke and Canning. 



99 



Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, the second baronet of 
his line, was born on October 16th 1865, the eldest son of the late 
Sir William Henry Broadbent, by his wife Eliza, the daughter of 
the late John Harpin, of Birks House, Holmfirth, Yorkshire. Having 
received his education from Rugby and Hertford College, Oxford, 
where he took his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1888, and became a 
Master of Arts four years later, Sir John decided to follow in the foot- 
steps of his father, and entered St. Mary's Hospital. His aptitude 
for the work was speedily demonstrated. In 1891 he became a 
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and a Licentiate of the 
Royal College of Physicians, whilst the following year he took his 
M.B.,and two years later graduated as a Doctor of Medicine and a 
Member of the Royal College of Physicians. He became a Fellow 
of the latter body in 1904. 

After some time spent in additional study in Paris, Sir John 
Broadbent, to give him his present title, married on February 12th 
1895 Margaret Elizabeth, the daughter of George Purdey Field, 
M.R.C.S., the issue of the marriage being a son and heir, William 
Francis, who was born on November 29th 1904, and four daughters. 

The distinguished father of Sir John, the late Sir William 
Henry Broadbent, held many varied appointments, including those 
of physician in ordinary to the late King Edward VII. when Prince 
of Wales, physician extraordinary to the late Queen Victoria, and 
he it was who attended the present King in 1891, when Duke of 
York, during a severe bout of typhoid fever, and the following 
year was in constant attendance on the late Duke of Clarence in 
his fatal illness. 

Created a baronet in 1893, Sir William Broadbent, amid all 
the claims on his time, yet contrived to produce two works of much 
importance in the medical world. The Pulse appeared in 1890, 
and The Heart seven years later. His death on July 10th, 1907 
was a matter of widespread regret. 



100 



Like his father, Sir John has also published a technical work, 
on the same subject, entitled Heart Disease and holds many ap- 
pointments. His connection with St. Mary's, the Hampstead 
General and the London Fever Hospitals is well known. 

Of Yorkshire extraction, John Broadbent, of Longwood, 
Huddersfield, was the grandfather of the present baronet, his eldest 
son, by his wife, Esther, the daughter of Benjamin Butterworth, of 
Hillhouse, Holmnrth, being the late Sir William, ist Bt. 

Mr. John Broadbent's third son, Colonel John Edward 
Broadbent, C.B., formerly of the Royal Engineers, and uncle of Sir 
John Broadbent, made a name for himself in India, in connection 
with the Military Works Department, having held the offices 
successively of Deputy Director General for Fortifications, Chief 
Engineer of the Bombay Military Works, and Chief Engineer of the 
Punjab Command, whilst, later, he was in command of the 
Tirah Expedition, and of the Malakand Field Force for his division. 
For his services with reference to the two last, he was 
decorated with the Companionship of the Bath, and in connection 
with the Tirah Expedition was mentioned in the Despatches. 

Sir John Broadbent's town residence is 35 Seymour Street, 
W., and he is a member of the New Oxford and Cambridge and 
the Leander Clubs. 







102 



John Mitchell Bruce, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S., MA. 



3oDn Mitchell Bruce, esq., m.D., C.C.D., 

f.RX.p., M.S., m.ji. 



OF Scottish extraction, Dr. John Mitchell Bruce was born in 
1846, being the son of Mr. A Bruce, of Aberdeenshire. 
The Grammar School and subsequently Aberdeen Uni- 
versity afforded him his education ; and later, resolved to enter the 
medical profession, he pursued his studies at the Middlesex Hospital, 
and subsequently at the University of Vienna. Having gained 
further Continental experience, he devoted his energies to the study 
of pathology under Sanderson and Klein, after which, he joined the 
Charing Cross Hospital, where he became Dean of the School, 
having previously taught physiology and pathology as well as 
medicine and the materia medica. 

For over twenty years, the Brompton Hospital has numbered 
Dr. Bruce among its physicians, and at the present time he ranks 
as Consulting Physician to Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital, 
as well as that of Charing Cross, and the King Edward VII 
Sanitorium at Midhurst, whilst the Medical Section of the Royal 
Society of Medicine claim his services as President, the Royal 
College of Physicians, the Victoria University as well as those of 



103 



London and Cambridge have availed themselves from time to time 
of his erudition as an Examiner, and the Royal Medical and 
Chirurgical Society of his abilities as Honorary Secretary. 

In the medical world of literature, Dr. Bruce's Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics (51st thousand) and Principles of Treatment, are 
standard works. He has held the positions of Assistant Editor of 
Quain's Dictionary, Joint-Editor of The Practitioner, and has been 
connected with The Medical Times and Gazette, besides being the 
author of numerous articles on technical subjects. 

Pond's Farm, near Beaconsfield, his picturesque Bucking- 
hamshire residence, affords Dr. Bruce opportunities to pursue his 
taste for horticulture, during such time as he can be spared from 
23, 1 Iarley Street, the only serious rivals to the garden being a love 
of travel and a leaning towards art. 

Dr. Bruce is a Fellow of the Zoological Society and a 
Member of the Caledonian and Athenaeum Clubs. 




04 



The Right Hon. The Earl of Buckinghamshire, D.L., J.P 



Che Right Don, 
Che earl or Buckinghamshire DX, 3-P- 



SIR SYDNEY CARR HOBART-HAMPDEN-MERCER- 
HENDERSON, Bt., Baron Hobart, of Blickling in Norfolk, 
and 7th Earl of Buckinghamshire, is the only surviving son 
of the late Frederick John, Lord Hobart, by his wife, Catherine 
Annesley, the youngest daughter of the late Rt. Rev. Thomas Carr, 
Bishop of Bombay. 

Born on March 14th i860, his lordship was educated at 
Haileybury and Trinity College, Cambridge, and succeeded to the 
title October 29th 1885, on the death of his grandfather, Augustus 
Edward, the 6th Earl and Prebendary of Wolverhampton, who 
had assumed the additional surname of Hampden by royal license 
in August 1788. 



^5 



On June 13th 1888 the present Earl married Georgina 
Wilhelmina, the only child of the late Hon. Hew Adam Dalrymple 
Hamilton Haldane-Duncan-Mercer- Henderson, of Fordell, Inver- 
keithing, the third son of Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Duncan 
and 1st Earl of Camperdown, by his wife, Edith Isabella, the sister 
and heir of George William Mercer Henderson, of Fordell, and on 
January 12th 1903, the Earl assumed by royal license the additional 
names of Mercer- Henderson for himself and his heirs, whilst the 
Countess of Buckinghamshire at the same time assumed the names 
of Mercer- Henderson in the place of Hobart- Hampden. 

Of this marriage, a son and heir, John Hampden, Lord 
Hobart, was born on April 16th 1906, subsequent to the birth of 
two daughters, of whom, the elder, the Lady Dorothy Edith Isabel 
Mercer- Henderson, who was born on April nth 1891 has recently 
become the wife of Mr. Claud Hope Morley, and the younger, the 
Lady Sidney Mary Catherine Anne, was born on April 17th 1900. 

The family of the Hobarts is of very ancient lineage, and is 
known to have been seated at Mitcham in Norfolk in the time of 
Henry III. Prior to the reign of James I. they had achieved fame, 
and were the holders of many important offices. 

The baronetcy dates from 161 1, when it was conferred upon 
Sir Henry Hobart, knight, of Blickling Hall, Norfolk, Chief Justice 
of the Common Pleas, sometime M.P. for Yarmouth, and great- 
grandson of Sir James Hobart of Hales Hall, who was attorney 
general to Henry VII., and a member of that monarch's Privy 
Council. The third baronet, Sir John Hobart, M.P., nephew of Sir 
John Hobart, the second baronet, married, as his second wife, Mary, 
the youngest daughter and co-heiress of the great John Hampden, 
of Hampden, in Buckinghamshire (and widow of Colonel Robert 
Hammond,) whose ancestors had been in possession of their estates 
for centuries. The eldest son of this marriage, Sir Henry Hobart, 
succeeded his father as 4th baronet, in 1683, and was in attendanc 



106 



on William III. as equerry at the Battle of Boyne in 1690. Eight 
years later, as the result of a duel with Oliver Le Neve, Sir Henry 
died, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John, at that time but 
live years of age. Educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, this 
member of the family subsequently sat for St. Ives and Beeralston 
in Parliament, besides holding the office of Treasurer of the 
Chamber of His Majesty, George II. On May 28th 1728, Sir John 
Hobart was raised to the Peerage as Baron Hobart of Blickling, 
and later, in 174b. was created 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire. His 
lordship was a member of the Privy Council, a Vice Admiral and 
Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk, and Captain of the Band of 
Gentlemen Pensioners. By his wife Judith, the daughter and co-heir 
of Robert Britiffe, of Baconsthorpe, he had, with other issue, a son, 
John, the 2nd Earl, who succeeded his father in 1756, having 
previously sat for Norwich for nine years in the House of Commons, 
and later held the offices of Comptroller of the King's Household 
and Lord of the King's Bedchamber, in addition to being sworn of 
the Privy Council. In 1762, he was appointed Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Emperor of Russia, and 
subsequently, in 1777 became Viceroy of Ireland. The 3rd. Earl 
George, half brother of the 2nd Earl, and was father of Robert, the 
4th Earl of Buckinghamshire, by his wife, Albinia, the daughter 
and co-heir of Lord Vere Bertie, and granddaughter of Robert, the 
1st Duke of Ancaster. 

As Colonial Secretary, Robert, the 4th Earl, gave his name 
to Hobartown in Tasmania. During his father's lifetime, he was 
called to the House of Lords by writ as Baron Hobart, and held 
office as chief Secretary of State for Ireland and Governor of 
Madras. He was also Secretary of War, and after his accession to 
the title was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 
1805 and 1812, and from 1806-7 discharged the duties of 
Postmaster General. Dying without male issue, in 1816, he was 
succeeded by his nephew, George Robert, as 5th Earl, who 



107 



inherited the estate of John, Lord (Viscount) Hampden, and by 
royal license assumed the name and arms of Hampden quarterly 
with those of Hobart. On his death on February ist 1849, also 
without issue, the title devolved upon his brother, The Rev. 
Augustus Edward Hobart, the third son of George Vere Hobart, 
the second son of the third Earl of Buckinghamshire, and grand- 
father of the present Earl. 

Born in 1793, the Rev. Augustus Edward Hobart was 
educated at Brazenose College, Oxford, where he graduated as B. A. 
in 1815, and three years later took his MA. degree, having 
previously married Mary, the eldest daughter of John Williams, 
King's Sergeant, by whom he had, with other issue, Frederick 
John, Lord Hobart, the father of the present Earl of Buckingham- 
shire, who died during the lifetime of the 6th Earl on July 24th 

1875. 

Hampden House, the County Seat of the Earl of Bucking- 
hamshire, and formerly of the Hampdens, is an imposing, white, 
embattled mansion, standing on the site of a more ancient 
building, and charmingly situated within extensive grounds, 
graced by fine elms, beeches and chestnuts, as well as stately cedars. 
The principal front, which is over two hundred feet in length, was 
erected in 1754, when, on the death of John Hampden, the last 
male descendant of that ancient house, who is described on his 
epitaph as the 24th lord of the manor in lineal descent, the estates 
passed to his cousin, the Hon. Robert Trevor, subsequently Baron 
Trevor and Viscount Hampden, the descendant of Ruth, the eldest 
daughter and co-heiress of John Hampden the Patriot ; and in 
1824, following the death of the 3rd Viscount Hampden, they 
reverted to George Robert Hobart, the 5th Earl of Buckinhamshire 
whose ancestress was Mary, the youngest daughter of the above 
mentioned John. 

Although it is claimed that the present mansion is mainly 

108 



of 18th century date, history and tradition combine to keep the 
memory of the former lords of Hampden green. It is recorded that 
they were in possession of the property as far back as 1043, when, 
in the reign of Edward the Confessor, the lord of Hampden was 
required to assist in the expulsion of those ruthless invaders, the 
Danes. King Edward III and his son, the Black Prince are said to 
have visited Hampden ; Queen Elizabeth was entertained there by 
Griffith Hampden ; and the historian, Lipscombe, alludes to a visit 
of James I during the infancy of the Patriot, whose part in the 
Civil War of Charles I's reign is well-known. 

Within the Church, which stands close to the house, are 
many memorials of this ancient family, the oldest being the brass 
effigies of "John Hampden esquyer (d. 1496) and Elizabeth, hys 
wyffe." 

The present Earl of Buckinghamshire acted as lord-in- 
waiting to her Majesty, the late Queen Victoria, in 1895. His 
lordship also takes a keen interest in municipal matters, and is a 
Deputy Lieutenant and Justice of the Peace for Buckinghamshire 
while for nearly twenty years the County Council numbered him 
among its members. 

The Earl of Buckinghamshire is the patron of two livings 
and owns some 6,000 acres. In addition to his Buckinghamshire 
seat, Fordell House, Inverkeithing, in Fifeshire is the property of 
his lordship. 

The Earl of Buckinghamshire is a member of Brooks's and 
the National Liberal Clubs. 



109 



no 



Lieut. -Colonel Henry Edward Buvney, J.P, 




Wavendon Tower, Bletchley. 



CieutXolonel ftenrp Cdward Bunicp, J.p. 



"7W DESCENDANT in the eighth degree from James Macburney 

W% who flourished in the sixteenth century, the present represen- 
tative of the elder branch of the well-known Burney 
family, Lieut. -Colonel Henry Edward Burney was born in Birdcage 
Walk on April gth, 1845, the only son of the late Rev. Henry 
Burney, M.A., for forty seven years Rector of Wavendon, and his 
wife, Sophia, the youngest daughter of Peter Richard Hoare, of 
Clayton Hall in Lancashire and Kelsey Park, Kent, and brother of 
the late Sir Henry Hugh Hoare, the third baronet of his line. 

Radley afforded Colonel Burney his education, and in 1871 
he married the Countess Ortensia Troili Asclepi, the elder daughter 
of Count Troili, of Rome, one son being the issue of the marriage. 

A Conservative in politics, Colonel Burney has rendered 
valuable service to his County as a Justice of the Peace, a Member 
of the County Licensing Committee and as Commissioner of Taxes, 
in addition to the military duties involved by his connection with 
the 3rd Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry, in which he 
holds the rank of Lieut. -Colonel. 

Of Scottish origin, it is supposed that the Macburneys 
accompanied James VI. of Scotland to England when he succeeded 
Queen Elizabeth in 1603. The first three generations were all 
named James Macburney, the third of that name was born in 1653, 



111 



and acquired an estate at Great Hanwood in Shropshire as well as 
a house in Whitehall. This member of the family also acted as 
landstevvard to the Earl of Ashburnham ; and, having married the 
daughter of his Shropshire Rector, by her had issue a son, James 
Burney, the first to drop the prefix Mac, and change the spelling 
of the family name. The latter was born at Hanwood in 1678, and 
received his education at Westminster in the days of the great Dr. 
Busby. At the age of nineteen he married a sixteen year old 
actress, Rebecca Ellis, and after her death, contracted a second 
alliance with that celebrated beauty, Ann Cooper, who is said to 
have had the honour of refusing Wycherley's offer of his heart and 
hand. Gifted with unusual abilities, James Burney nevertheless 
lacked the steady perseverance essential to success. He was many 
things by turns, but nothing long, and after his second marriage, 
took to portrait painting. Altogether he had fifteen children, 
Richard Burney, of Barbonne Lodge, Worcester, who was born in 
1723 being his elder son by his second wife, and the great-great 
grandfather of Colonel Burney, while the celebrated author of the 
History of Music, Dr. Charles Burney, who was born in 1726, and 
became the father of Frances Burney, afterwards Madame la 
Comtesse d'Arblay, was the younger son of James and Ann Burney, 
to whom was also born a daughter, Ann. 

It was during the time that young Charles Burney was the 
pupil of Arne that he attracted the attention of Fulke Greville, on 
whom the lad's musical talent and charm of manner made so great 
an impression that he gave Arne ^"300 to cancel the articles and 
took the young musician into his own home. In 1749, after 
Greville's marriage, Charles Burney fell in love with, and married 
Esther Sleepe, a lady of French extraction her grandfather being 
one Dubois, a refugee. 

The Diary and Letters of Madame d'Arblay as well as her 
edition of the Memoirs of Dr. Burney unfold intensely interesting 
life stories of the family, including the history of the friendships 



112 



with all the literary and artistic celebrities of the day, such as 
Johnson, Burke, Garrick, Mrs. Montagu, the Thrales and the 
Reynolds. Such was the charm of Dr. Burney's personality that he 
was admitted to the membership of almost every literary coterie of 
the time. Five years after the death of his first wife in 1761, Dr. 
Burney married Mrs. Stephen Allen, a widow, of King's Lynn, by 
whom he had a son Richard Thomas, afterwards connected with 
the Indian Civil Service, and a daughter, Sarah Harriet, a novelist 
of considerable ability. 

Dr. Burney, the talented author of " The Ode to St. Cecilia's 
Day" and the "History of Music," died on April 12th 1814, having 
outlived most of his contemporaries, and was laid to rest in the 
burial ground of Chelsea Hospital, a tablet to his memory being 
erected in Westminster Abbey. 

Of his children, the eldest, Esther, married her cousin, 
Charles Rousseau Burney, the son of Richard Burney of Barbonne 
Lodge before mentioned. 

James, who was born on June 13th 1750, was educated at 
King's Lynn in Norfolk, at the school where Eugene Aram acted 
as usher, and the memory of that unhappy madman and his 
appalling discourses with the boys on the subject of murder were 
among the most vivid impressions of his youth. Later, having 
embraced the sea as a profession, James Burney sailed under 
Captain Cook on more than one voyage, and was with him at his 
death, as first Lieutenant on the Discovery. After some years of 
active service in the East Indies this member of the family 
superannuated as a Rear Admiral in 182 1. Admiral Jem, as 
his family generally called him, had little, of the polish of his father, 
but his frank generosity and uniform breeziness of manner gained 
many friends. The latter part of his life was spent in literary 
labours. He assisted in the compilation of a Record of Captain 
Cook's last voyage, and wrote ' A Plan of Defence against Invasion 
1797' in the days when Buonaparte's designs against England 



H3 



were taking practical shape in the dockyards on the other side of 
the channel ; " A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the 
South Seas, or Pacific, 1750 to 1764," and a " Chronological History 
of the North Eastern Voyages of the Discovery." His only son, 
Martin, by his wife, Sarah, the daughter of Thomas Payne, became 
a barrister, and, in early days was a great favourite with Charles 
Lambe. Admiral Jem's daughter, Sarah, married her cousin, John 
Payne, and is supposed to have greatly resembled her celebrated 
Aunt, Madame d'Arblay, in person. Mrs. Payne lived principally 
on the Continent, for the most part in Rome, and was the centre 
of a very interesting circle, including many distinguished members 
of Roman Society. 

The third child of Dr. Charles and Esther Burney was 
Frances, who was born at King's Lynn on June 13th, 1752, her 
father at that time being the organist of that town. Entirely self- 
educated, Fanny Burney had reached the age of eight before she 
made the acquaintance of her letters, although two years later 
found her engaged in the writing of stories, of course including 
tragedies, all of which youthful productions she destroyed on her 
fifteenth birthday. 

In 1778, in her twenty-sixth year, came the brilliant success 
of her first novel, " Evelina," that took the world by storm. It is 
surprising to note the book that cost Sir Joshua Reynolds and 
Burke a night's sleep only brought the young authoress £"20, to 
which a further £10 was added, at a later date, and ten choicely 
bound copies. Four years later," Cecilia," her second novel, made 
its appearance, and in 1786 Fanny Burney was appointed second 
Keeper of the Robes in the Royal Household, under Madame 
Schwellenberg. Ill health, however, compelled her to relinquish a 
post never really congenial, in 1790, and three years later she 
married Lieut. -General le Comte d'Arblay, formerly Commandant 
of Longwy, and a knight of the Orders of St. Louis, the Legion of 
Honour and the Lys. 



114 



Her diaries make most fascinating reading, and present pen 
pictures of the celebrities with whom she came in contact, as well 
as affording interesting side lights on family affairs. Her death 
occurred on January 6th, 1840 at the age of 87. 

The following extract from her early diary is dated 
September 12th, 1768, and comprises her first mention of her cousin 
Charles Rosseau Burney, great-grandfather of Colonel Burney : — 

Miss Tilson, a young lady of fashion, fortune and 
education, birth, accomplishments and beauty, has fallen 
in love with my cousin, Charles Burney. She is about 
seventeen, and she wrote her declaration to him on her 
glove, which she dropt for him to pick up. She is the 
daughter lo some Lady Kerry, and has a portion in her 
own hands of several thousands, but this worthy 
Charles not liking her, is above temptation. 

In his youth, Charles Rousseau Burney studied music under 
his father, and was engaged at the Drury Lane Theatre. 

The second son of Dr. Charles Burney was that eminent 
Greek scholar, Dr. Charles Burney, D.D., who was born at King's 
Lynn about 1757, and became Chaplain to the King. On his death 
in 1817, his vast and extremely valuable library was placed in the 
care of the British Museum un ler the title of the " Burney Library," 
after having been purchased for the nation, for the sum of ^"13,500. 
Among others of its treasures was a Town ley Homer, valued at 
£"1,000, which is ascribed to the thirteenth century. 

To Charles Rousseau Burney and his cousin and wife, Esther 
a son, Richard Allen Burney, was born in 1773, who became Rector 
of Rimpton in Somerset, and by his marriage with Elizabeth 
Layton Williams, of Herringston Manor, in Dorsetshire, had a son, 
Henry Burney, the father of Colonel Burney, and Rector of 
Wavendon, who was born in 1814. To the generosity of the late 
Rev. H. Burney, the restoration of St. Mary's Church, Wavendon, 
must be attributed. After his death, a memorial window was 
erected in the church by his four children, " To the Glory of God, 



Ir 5 



and in loving memory of their Father, the Rev. Henry Burney," 
who, " after a life of long devotion to his duties here, during which 
time he restored the church and built the rectory house almost 
entirely at his own expense, entered into rest on the 16th day of 
July 1893, after a few days' illness, aged 79. He leaves a son, and 
three daughters to mourn the irreparable loss of one who was not 
only a most kind and affectionate father, but whose hand was ever 
open to relieve the necessities of the poor and needy." 

Among the most interesting features of Wavendon Tower, 
Colonel Burney 's beautiful home in Buckinghamshire, is a fine 
gallery of family portraits, including specimens of the work of 
Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Gainsborough. The following 
are the family portraits in the Dining-room — * James Macburney, 
1578 ; James Macburney, 1601 ; James Macburney, 1653, died 1723 ; 
James Burney, 1678, died 1749 ; Richard Burney, 1723, died 1792 ; 
Charles Rousseau Burney, 1747, died 1819 ; Richard Allen Burney, 
1773, died 1836 ; Henry Burney, 1814, died 1893 5 Henry Edward 
Burney, 1845 ; Ann Burney ; Charles Burney (Music) D ; Comtesse 
Fanny Burney; Sophia Burney; Thomas F. Burney; Richard 
Gustavus Burney and Esther Burney ; also some Hoare portraits 
wmich Colonel Burney inherited from his mother (Sophia Hoare d. 
of P. R. Hoare. and granddaughter of Sir R. Hoare (Lord Mayor) 
whose picture he has on horseback in his robes near Temple Bar. 

The house itself is a large brick mansion, covered with rough 
cast, and possessed of a central tower, standing within well laid 
out grounds, and commanding fine views of the surrounding 
country, the approach being through an avenue of lime and 
chestnut trees. 

Colonel Burney is one of the chief landowners in the 
Wavendon district of Buckinghamshire, and is a member of the 
Junior Carlton Club. 



* The9e are all In line from father to son down to Colonel Burney. Observe the difference in spelling and the 
discontinuance of the Scottish Mac, probably taken from an old family Bible, date 1547 in Colonel Burney 's possession. 



116 



The Right Hon. The Baron Burnham, K.C.V.O., D.L., J. P. 



CDe Right Ron. Che Baron Burnham, 

K.C.V.O., D.£ 4t 3P. 



CO no one do the historical and literary memories that centre 
round Hall Barn and Beaconsfield make more eloquent 
appeal than to their present owner, Sir Edward Levy- 
Lawson, Bt., the ist Lord Burnham, principal proprietor of The 
Daily Telegraph, and ex- President of the Institute of Journalists, 
who fully appreciates the feeling of pastoral peace in these beauti- 
ful surroundings, that led the great Edmund Burke to pronounce 
the years spent at his Beaconsfield seat of The Gregories among the 
happiest of his life. Only a rough spinney marks the shrubbery of 
that house now, Gregories itself having been burnt down in 1813. 
The site of the foundations is indicated by mere irregular grass clad 
mounds, but the memory of that great orator, and statesman, its 
former occupant, remains. 

Impressive in its simplicity is the small oval tablet on the 
south wall of the little flint church of St. Mary and All Saints: — 

Near this place 
Lie interred 



119 



All that was mortal of the 

Rt. Honourable Edmund Burke, 
Who died gth July 1797. 

That was all, until over a hundred years later, when Lord 
Rosebery unveiled another memorial to him. But Buckingham- 
shire best remembers its sometime Member for Wendover as a 
kindly, country squire, of simple and unassuming manners, accessible 
and considerate to all. Lord Burnham treasures as mementoes of 
Burke's political life an autograph letter to William Pitt, a few 
notes in Burke's handwriting, with reference to the memorable 
Impeachment of Warren Hastings, including one: — " Hastings 
worth nothing; he has left nobody else worth anything ". 

The dagger too, once flung on the floor of the House of 
Commons in momentary excitement, is now at Hall Barn, along 
with a portion of Burke's dinner service, and a teatray that 
formerly belonged to the great statesman. 

Originally built by the poet Waller, the author of " Go, 
lovely Rose," in whose family the Beaconsfield property remained 
for many years, the house was considerably altered and enlarged by 
a subsequent owner, Sir Gore Ouseley, sometime Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Persia, 
who was also largely instrumental in enabling the Russians to 
drive Buonaparte out of their country. Standing within a 
beautifully wooded park, the present mansion, a large 
quadrangular building, composed of brick with stone dressings 
contains some magnificent apartments, the height of which from 
floor to ceiling, is fully twenty three feet, the well stocked library 
being especially noteworthy. 

Another feature of the carefully tended grounds and gardens, 
from which they derive an additional charm, is a large sheet of 
ornamental water, some two acres in extent, abounding in fish. 



1 20 



The eldest son of the late Joseph Moses Levy, the founder of 
The Daily Telegraph, by his wife, Esther, the 2nd daughter of 
Godfrey Alexander Cohen, of London, his lordship was born on 
28th December 1833, his grandfather being Moses Lionel Levy, a 
London merchant, who died in 1830. 

University College, London, afforded Lord Burnham, to give 
him his present title, his education. On February 20th 1862, he 
married Harriette Georgiana, whose death occurred on May 25th 
1897, (the only daughter of that noted actor manager and author, 
Mr. Benjamin Nottingham Webster, of Pen-y-Craig, Denbighshire,) 
by whom he has two sons. The elder, the Hon. Harry Lawson 
Webster Lawson, M.P., is the Liberal Unionist Member for the 
Tower Hamlets, Mile End Division, who married Olive, the 2nd 
daughter of the late General Sir Henry Percival de Bathe, Bt., and 
has issue, a daughter, Dorothy, now the wife of Captain the Hon. 
John Spencer Coke, of the Scots Guards. The birth of this lady's 
son, Gerald Edward, in 1907, made Lord Burnham a great-grand- 
father. 

His lordship's younger son is Lieut. -Col. the Hon. William 
Arnold Webster Lawson, whose splendid services as Commander 
of the 10th Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry in South Africa 
gained for him the Distinguished Service Order, Queen's Medal, 
four elasps, and a dual mention in the despatches. 

On December nth 1875, by royal license, Edward Levy 
assumed the name of Lawson, in accordance with the terms of his 
uncle, Lionel Lawson's will, and eleven years later saw him High 
Sheriff for Buckinghamshire, and President of the Institute of 
Journalists for the first time, his second Presidency occurring from 
1891-2. 

Created a baronet on October 13th 1892, and raised to the 
Peerage as Lord Burnham, on July 31st 1903, the additional honour 
of Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order was bestowed 



I2i 



upon his lordship the following year, whilst he is also a Knight of 
the Rising Sun of Japan, and one of His Majesty's Lieutenants for 
the City of London. 

As a Magistrate, a Deputy Lieutenant, and until lately a 
County Alderman for Buckinghamshire, Lord Burnham has ever 
given generously of his time and substance for the promotion of 
that Shire's well being. 

Not very far from the Church is a quaint old timbered 
building, forming three sides of a square, that, at one time, was 
utilized as a subpriory of a Benedictine Convent then at Burnham. 
The probable date of its erection is the early part of the sixteenth 
century, and this interesting relic of former days was completely 
restored by Lord Burnham, for the benefit of the Parish of 
Beaconsfield, in January 1902, in loving memory of the late Lady 
Lawson. But for his lordship's timely intervention, it is probable 
that a most interesting specimen of the architecture of the period 
would have been lost. The building consists of two storeys, the 
lower being composed entirely of brick, and the upper of large tim- 
bers, placed closely together, wiih the interstices filled with 
plaster. Built with all the solidity of the past, whole tree trunks 
form passages and partitions, while the floors are composed of huge 
planks, the various steps of solid blocks, merely roughly shaped 
with an axe, and the chief staircase itself is within a turret of 
timber. 

The Village Hall too, was erected by Lord Burnham in 
1886, and is designed to accommodate about five hundred persons. 

Formerly in possession of the Windsor family, Beaconsfield 
became the property of Burnham Abbey, and, after the Dissolution 
of the Monasteries, was granted to the Wallers, an ancient family of 
Kentish origin, one of whose ancestors, Sir Richard Waller, of 
Speldhurst, Kent, captured Charles, Duke of Orleans, on the field 
of Agincourt, and kept that unfortunate Prince prisoner in his 



122 



Kentish home for the next four and twenty years. Edmund 
Waller, the poet, was lord of the manor of Beaconsfield where he 
died in 1687, at the age of eighty two, and his tomb is to be seen 
in St. Mary's Churchyard, within the shelter of a fine walnut tree. 
It was in 1832 that Sir Gore Ouseley, previously mentioned, 
purchased Beaconsfield from Henry Edmund Waller, and some 
fourteen years later his son, the Rev. Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley, 
sold it to John Hargreaves of Accrington, in Lancashire. 

Among the charities of Beaconsfield, which amount to 
nearly ^"300 per annum, are three belonging to the Waller family, 
one, dated 1699, for £y.io.o, another dated 1810 for £"35, and a 
third, amounting to £"14.16.9. The parish registers date from 
1631. 

Lord Burnham is lord of the manor of Beaconsfield, and his 
property amounts to about 4,500 acres. Partial to an outdoor life, 
he numbers golfing, shooting and riding among his favourite 
recreations. His town residence is 20 Norfolk Street, Park Lane, 
W., and his lordship is a member of the Marlborough, Garrick and 
Beefsteak Clubs. 




123 



124 



Mrs. Burton, of Upton Court 




Mrs. Burton. 




Upton Court. 




Upton Court (West Side 




Upton Court (south end of House with bed of tulips). 



[Rrs. Burton, of Upton Court. 



■7BLTHOUGH Upton-cum-Chalvey, to give it its full name, is 

w% now practically part of Slough, in the days of William the 

Norman, " Opetone," as it was then called, was bestowed on 

Hugh de Beauchamp by the King, and from Hugh's son, it passed 

to Merton Convent, in Surrey. 

Upton Court itself, a fine old building, was formerly a 
religious house attached to the convent, and in past days included 
an additional east wing, which was demolished rather more than a 
hundred years ago. 

The picturesque portion that remains is of great interest to 
lovers of the antique. The roof is over seven hundred years old, 
and very beautiful from an architectural point of view. 

Evidences of a monastic past are to be found on all sides in 
the interior. Two recesses in the drawing room, separated by a 
wall of most unusual thickness are believed to have been used as 
cells for the monks, although, at the present time, they have been 
converted into fireplaces ; and in another room, in addition to a 
fine ceiling, is a quaint old chimney, which enjoys the reputation 
of containing a hitherto undiscovered secret room. 



I2 5 



" In solo Deo salus ' runs the inscription on one of the squares 
of Dutch glass in the dining room window, whilst another bears 
the date of 1667, and over the door of the east front another in- 
scription evidences the laws of true hospitality, and at the same 
time, gives rise to much conjecture : — " Welcome ye cominge, 1383 ' 
(and here is the figure of a monk) " 1434, speed ye parting gest." 

Upton Court is situated in well laid out grounds, whence 
charming views of Windsor Castle are obtained, and is now in the 
occupation of Mrs. Burton. 




126 



Ernest Callard, Esq. 




Little Missenden Abbey, Great Missencjen. 




Little Missenden Abbey. 




Little Missenden Abbev. 




Little Missenden Abbev, Great Missenden. 



ernest Callard, €$q. 



SITUATED between Great and Little Missenden, in Eastern 
Buckinghamshire, is the picturesque red brick building known 
as Little Missenden Abbey for over two hundred years, and 
at present the residence of Mr. Ernest Callard, of Callard, in 
Devonshire. One of the oldest and most interesting of the exterior 
features of the mansion is the square tower, parts of which are 
believed to date back as far as the thirteenth or fourteenth century, 
whilst within, the beautiful Large Hall, with its Minstrel Gallery 
and Arcading, bespeaks an ideal English Country Seat. 

Born in 1856, Mr. Callard is the third son of the late Thomas 
Karr Callard, of Cricklewood, by his wife, Anne, the daughter of 
the late William Black, of Montrose, and was on the roll of High 
Sheriff for Buckinghamshire for 191 1. 

By his marriage in 1882, with Isabella, the daughter of 
Edvvyn Rumbelow, of Freckenham in Cambridgeshire, Mr. Callard 
has with other issue, a son and heir, Norman Leslie, who was born 
in 1883, and after receiving his education from Uppingham, is now 
a Lieutenant in the Reserve of Officers and a former Lieutenant of 
the South Lancashire Regiment. 

127 



128 



William Walter Carlile, Esq., D.L., J. P. 



Ulilliam Olaltcr Carlilc esq., D.C., 3.p. 



SINCERELY interested in the fortunes of Buckinghamshire ; 
historically, as lord of the manor of Gayhurst ; municipally, 
as a Deputy Lieutenant, a County Alderman, and a Justice of 
the Peace ; martially, as a former Lieutenant of the ist Bucks 
Volunteer Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry and the 
Royal Bucks Hussars Yeomanry; and politically, for Mr. William 
Walter Carlile sat for the Northern division of the County in the 
Conservative interest for eleven years, from 1895 to 1906, and 
contested North Bucks in 1892, the present owner of Gayhurst 
devotes much time to the affairs of his County. 

Born on June 15th 1862, Mr. William Walter Carlile is the 
only son of the late Mr. James William Carlile, of Ponsbourne Park, 
in Hertfordshire, and his first wife, Mary, the elder daughter of the 
late Walter Woodhams Whiteman, of Glengarr, Argyllshire. After 
receiving his education at Harrow and Clare College, Cambridge, 
on April 9th 1885 he married Blanche Anne, the third daughter of 
the late Rev. Edward Cadogan, Rector of Wicken, Northampton- 
shire. Mrs. Carlile has long identified herself with the revival of 
the Bucks Point Lace Industry in North Bucks and her efforts have 
met with well deserved success. 



129 



Mr. Carlile's father, Mr. James William Carlile, sometime 
magistrate for Buckinghamshire as well as Hertfordshire, and High 
Sheriff of the latter County, purchased the Gayhurst estate from its 
former proprietress, Lady Macdonald, in 1880, at the expiration of 
Lord Carrington's lease of the manor. 

Early in the eighteenth century, Gayhurst was the property 
of the Wrightes George Wrighte, the son of the Lord Keeper of 
the Great Seal, Sir Nathan Wrighte, having purchased it from the 
the descendants of the celebrated Digby family, to whom, in their 
turn, it came from the Mulshos, Maria, the daughter and sole 
heiress of William Mulsho having brought it to her handsome 
husband, Sir Everard Digby, early in the reign of James I. His 
complicity in the Gunpowder Plot is well known, as well as his 
terrible fate; and it has been said that no other English family of 
equal standing suffered in a like degree from the effects of this 
conspiracy. 

Sir Everard's son, the great Sir Kenelm Digby, was born at 
Gayhurst, and to his care of his beautiful, consumptive wife, 
Venezia Anastasia, the daughter of Sir Edward Stanley, of Tong 
Castle, Salop, is due the edible snail, that is still a habitant of the 
surrounding woods, and which was imported especially from 
France, on Lady Digby's account. 

In Domesday times Gayhurst, or as it was then called 
Gothurst Manor was held by the De Noyers under that militant 
Bishop, Odo of Bayeux. Later, having become its possessors in 
their own right, the De Noyers continued to hold it until the reign 
of King Henry IV., when Joanna, the sister and sole heir of the last 
Almaric de Nouers carried it in marriage to Robert Nevyll. In the 
reign of King Henry V1I1., Maria, the only daughter and heiress of 
Michael Nevyll brought it to her husband, Thomas Mulsho, of 
Thingdon, Northamptonshire, and it continued in this family until 
it passed to the Digbys as previously mentioned. 



130 



The oldest portions of the mansion at Gayhurst date from the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. Nearly a hundred years later, 
William Mulsho, its then owner, built a new house, formed, as was 
the fashion of the time in the shape of the letter E, in honour of 
Queen Elizabeth, and so designed that the older portion of the 
building made the lowest part of the letter of the alphabet it 
represented. Later, after George Wrighte had acquired the 
property in 1704, he made extensive additions to the existing 
structure, including a grand staircase as well as a dining room and 
ball room. But the character, mainly Elizabethan, and in parts, 
Jacobean is faithfully preserved by Mr. Carlile, whose good taste 
has rendered the interior appointments of Gayhurst worthy of their 
dignified and stately setting. 

It would be difficult to imagine anything more thoroughly 
in keeping with its associations than that fine entrance hall, hung 
with ancient tapestries, and decorated with the arms and armour 
of bygone days, whilst the Drawing Room numbers among many 
other interesting features an exquisite corniced ceiling, the work of 
Grinling Gibbons, one of Sir Frederick Leighton's early paintings, 
and last, but not least, a fine collection of curios amassed by Mr. 
Carlile. The Burleigh, Raleigh, Prince, Guard, Peacock and 
Digby Rooms are all alike interesting. The original builders saw 
to it that the last was provided with appropriate hiding places, 
which probably led to its being used by the Gunpowder Plot 
conspirators for their meetings. In place of the usual sliding 
panel, this room was given a moveable floor, so constructed as to 
revolve when required, and disclose a lower room, whose existence 
would not be suspected by the ordinary visitor, unacquainted with 
the secret. The drawers and cupboards too were not the innocent 
receptacles for clothing that they appeared to be, for secret bolts 
only known to the initiated being withdrawn, they afforded means 
of escape to the upper floors in case of need. 

Gayhurst stands within a beautifully wooded park of some 



J3 1 



250 acres, (wherein are three large fish ponds), nearly three miles from 
Newport Pagnell in Northern Buckinghamshire. The charm of the 
house and its surroundings appealed strongly to the Poet Cowper, 
who, on one occasion, came over from Olney, on a visit, and placed 
his impressions on record. " The situation is happy," he wrote, " the 
hothouse in the most flourishing state, and the orange trees the 
most captivating creatures of the kind I ever saw." 

The well kept gardens are graced by an antique sundial, 
bearing the date 1670, and the motto of the Digbys, " Nul que une," 
while near the front of the house is a pedestal, with lines " To the 
Memory of a Beautifully Mottled Peacock," a tender reminiscence 
of days that are no more. 

The stone Church of St. Peter, originally built at the 
expense of George Wrighte, the former purchaser of the manor, 
was restored in 1883 by Mr. James William Carlile, the father of 
the present owner of Gayhurst, and contains a monument to Sir 
Nathan Wrighte, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, on which he 
is represented in his robes of office. 

Mr. William Walter Carlile is a member of the Carlton, 
Junior Carlton, and Bath Clubs. 




132 



The Right Hon. The Earl Carrington, K.G., P.C., G.C.M.G., 

D.L., J.P. 




The Right Hon. The Earl Carrington, K.G., P.C., 

G.C.M.G., D.L., J. P. 




The Seat of The Right. Hon. the Earl Carrington, K.G., P.C., 

G.C.M.G., D.L., J.P. 




Daw's Hill Lodge. 




The Gates at Daw's Hill Lodge. 



Cbe Rigbt Bon. 
ClK Carl Carrington, K-6 M p.C M 6X-m*6- t 



SIR CHARLES ROBERT WYNN-CARRINGTON was born 
on May 15th 1843, being the eldest son of the late Robert 
John, second Baron Carrington, by his second wife, Charlotte 
Augusta Annabella the younger daughter of Peter Robert, twenty- 
first Lord Willoughby de Eresby, and descended from the Wynns 
of Gwydyr through the Dukes of Ancaster. 

Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, afforded his lordship 
his education, and, having graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in 1863, 
on July 15th 1868 he married the Hon. Cecilia Margaret Harbord, 
the eldest daughter of Charles, fifth Lord Suffield, who occupied 
the position of Chief of the Staff to the late King, when as Prince 
of Wales, he set out on his memorable expedition to India in 1875, 
and until 1901 was Lord of the Bedchamber to His late Majesty, 
after which date he became Lord in Waiting in Ordinary. 



33 



To Lord and Lady Carrington were born five daughters, 
and a son, Albert Edward Robert, Viscount Wendover, who came 
into the world on April 24th 1895, and for whom His Majesty, 
King Edward VII. was sponsor, Her Majesty Queen Alexandra 
having personally honoured their second daughter, Alexandra 
Augusta in a similar manner, while the late Queen Victoria 
graciously acted in like capacity for Lady Victoria Alexandrina 
Carrington, the fifth, and only unmarried daughter, who is one of 
the six young ladies who had the privilege of bearing Her Majesty, 
Queen Mary's, train, at the Coronation. 

His lordship is Joint Hereditary Great Chamberlain of 
England, with the Marquess of Cholmondeley and the Earl of 
Ancaster, third Baron Carrington, a member of the Privy Council, 
Knight of the Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George, and a 
Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. A Deputy 
Lieutenant and a Justice of the Peace for both Carnarvon and 
Bucks, and a county Alderman for the latter shire, a late Hon. 
Colonel of the 3rd Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry, and 
formerly Captain of the Royal Horse Guards, Lord Carrington 
was also Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen at Arms from 1881 to 
1885, when he became Governor of the Colony of New South Wales 
until 1890, and was appointed Lord Chamberlain to the Household 
from 1892 to 1895 ; among other high offices that have fallen to his 
share was that of Special Envoy to the Courts of France, Spain 
and Portugal to announce the accession of the late King Edward 
VII. in 1901. 

The creation of the Earldom dates from July 16th 1895, and 
in the following year, Earl Carrington and his issue were 
authorised by Royal License to bear the surname Wynn before 
that of Carrington. Since 1905 his lordship has been president of 
the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, and in 1906 was ex officio 
on the Commission of Woods and Forests. 



34 



A Liberal in politics, he represented Wycombe in Parlia- 
ment from 1865 to 1868, and was Chairman of the Welsh Land 
Commission appointed by Mr. Gladstone in 1893. Lord 
Carrington has achieved the successful establishment of Colonies 
of small holdings on his some 23,000 acres of estates, which 
circumstance has led him to advacate a similar policy with regard 
to the Crown lands, and its general application under the Small 
Holdings Act. 

The grandfather of Earl Carrington was Robert Smith, 
afterwards the first Baron Carrington, who was born on January 
22nd, 1752, the third son of Abel Smith, the Nottinghamshire 
banker and politician. Robert Smith represented Nottingham in 
no less than five successive Parliaments, and formed a close 
friendship with the younger Pitt, to whom he was enabled to be of 
considerable political assistance, and on July 16th, 1796, was raised 
to the peerage of Ireland as Baron Carrington, of Bulcot Lodge. 
The next year, on October 20th, as Baron Carrington, of Upton, in 
Nottinghamshire, he became a Peer of Great Britain. The 
creation derives additional interest from the fact that it is believed 
to be the only instance in which King George III. deviated from his 
custom of never granting an English Peerage to any of his subjects 
who had been connected with Commerce. 

About 1795 Earl Wycombe, of Chipping Wycombe, the son of 
John Fitzmaurice,afterwardsEarlof Shelburne, and Baron of Chipp- 
ing Wycombe, put up the Wycombe estate for auction in lots, and 
found a purchaser in the first Lord Carrington, who, in 1803, enter- 
tained Pitt at his seat at Wycombe Abbey, formerly called Loates, 
which he rebuilt somewhat after the Gothic style. In 1896 this houses 
was purchased together with thirty acres of ground by the Girl's 
Education Co. Ltd., and is now used as a Girls' School, Daw's 
Hill being the Buckingham seat of the present Earl, who is lord of 
the Manor. 



] 35 



Unlike his grandson, the first Lord Carrington was a Tory 
in his later years, and after he had become a member of the Upper 
House, was accustomed to entrust his proxy to the Duke of 
Wellington when unable to attend the House in person. By his 
first wife, Anne, the daughter of Lewyns Boldero Barnard, of South 
Cave, Yorkshire, he had, with other issue, a son, Robert John, who 
succeeded his father as second Baron Carrington, on September 
18th 1838, and assumed by Royal Licence the name of Carrington. 
The father of the third Baron and first Earl, was educated at Eton, 
and Christ Church, Cambridge, held the office of Lord Lieutenant 
and Custos Rotulorum for Bucks, and was Chairman of the 
Quarter Sessions until his death on March 17th 1868, besides having 
served as Liberal M.P. for Bucks, Wendover, and Wycombe. 

Among the many kindly acts the present Lord Carrington 
has performed for Buckingham must be instanced his generous gift 
of a full length portrait of the late King, when Prince of Wales, in 
1876, to the Guildhall of High Wycombe. 

The East Window of the parish church is a memorial of 
Robert, the first Baron Carrington, and grandfather of the first 
Earl. 

In addition to his Buckinghamshire seat, his lordship owns 
Gwydyr Castle in North Wales, he is the patron of five livings, 
and his town residence is 53 Prince's Gate, S.W. 

Lord Carrington is a member of the National Liberal, 
Brooks, and Marlborough Clubs. 



136 



George Carrington, Esq., J. P., B.A. 



George Carrington, esq., 3P- B.fl. 



CORD of the Manors of Great Missenden, Peterley, Stone, 
Netherbury, also Overbury, Mr. George Carrington, of Great 
Missenden Abbey, was born in 1856, the eldest son of the late 
George Carrington, of Great Missenden Abbey, by his wife, 
Elizabeth Jane Hodges, of Jersey. 

Eton, Trinity College, and the Royal Agricultural College 
at Cirencester combined to form his education, the result is told by 
the letters he is entitled to use :— M.R.A.C, M.R.A.S.E., F.H. A. S., 
and last, but not least, Mr. Carrington is a Fellow of the Chemical 
Society. 

On the site of the present mansion, an Abbey was founded 
in 1133, for the Canons of St. Augustine, by Sir William de 
Missenden, according to some accounts, whilst others ascribe its 
foundation to the D'Oyley family. In any case, the Missendens 
were of considerable benefit thereto, and Sir William de Missenden 
granted the Abbey, with other property, the manor of Missenden. 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the property 
passed into the hands of James Oldham Oldham, who practically 
rebuilt the hour,e. Of the ancient Abbey, little now remains above 



!37 



ground, although Browne Willis especially refers to some exquisite 
arches that he conjectures belonged to the old Chapter House, and 
which, later, found a resting place at either end of the greenhouse. 

The present mansion came into the Carrington family about 
1815, and is well situated within an extensive park of some one 
hundred acres, its stately Gothic embattled pile, in the form of a 
square, boasts of two turrets, each crowned with a cross, whilst 
groined ceilings and lofty rooms combine to make a pleasing 
interior. 

Mr. George Carrington is a Justice of the Peace for 
Buckinghamshire, and a Member of the Junior Carlton Club. 






38 



The Right Hon. The Baron Chesham 



Cbe RigM fton, CDe Baron ClKSbatth 

JOHN COMPTON CAVENDISH is the second, but only 
surviving son of the late Charles Compton William Caven- 
dish, 3rd Lord Chesham (by his marriage with the Lady 
Beatrice Constance, the second daughter of Hugh Lupus, 1st Duke 
of Westminster, K.G., a Lady of Grace of St. John of Jerusalem 
and of the Royal Red Cross, who married Mr. John Alexander 
Moncreiffe in October 19 10) and succeeded his father as 4th Baron 
Chesham on November 9th 1907. 

Born on June 13th 1894, n ^ s lordship is an Etonian, and the 
owner of some 12,000 acres in the provinces alone. 

Latimer House, his Buckinghamshire seat, is a fine 
Elizabethan Mansion of red brick with stone dressings, 
picturesquely situated above Latimer village within a well 
timbered park, and historically celebrated as a temporary prison 
of King Charles I., and later, as a refuge for his son, afterwards 
King Charles II. On the staircase is a handsome painted window, 
containing the names of by-gone owners, from the time of Edward 
III. until Earl Burlington, the great-great-grandfather of the 
present Lord Chesham, and the collection of pictures is 
particularly fine. 



39 



Among other memorials of the family in the Church of St. 
Mary Magdalene — originally built by the ist Lord Chesham — is a 
tablet to the Hon. Charles William Hugh Cavendish, his lordship's 
elder brother, who was killed in South Africa in 1900. 






4° 



Sir William Robert Clayton, Bt., D.L., J. P., MA. 



Sir lUilliam Robert Clapton, Bt., 
D.C., 3P., l»Jl. 






IN Harleyford House, the present lord of the manor of Marlow, 
Sir William Robert Clayton, the 6th Bt., has a fine specimen 
of Queen Anne architecture, affording exquisite views of 
Thames scenery, and a good collection of pictures, including 
works of Gainsborough, Romney, Sir Peter Lely, and others, 
among which is the portrait of an ancestor, Sir Robert Clayton, 
knight, Lord Mayor of London in 1679, and another of the present 
baronet's great-grandfather, Sir William Clayton, the 4th Bt., a 
good friend to the Royal Bucks Yeomanry. 

Born in 1842, Sir William Robert Clayton is the only son of 
the late Captain William Capel Clayton, of the Coldstream 
Guards, who died in 1882, by his wife, Georgiana, the daughter of 
the late Robert Wood, and succeeded his grandfather, the 5U1 
baronet, in 1866. 

Sandhurst, Bonn and Cambridge gave him his education. 
In 1872 he married Aimee Gertrude, daughter of the late Edward 
Mackenzie, of Fawley Court, and four years later was Sheriff for 
the Shire. 



141 



Formerly a Captain in the Royal Bucks Militia, Sir 
William Clayton is a Magistrate for Norfolk, Surrey and Car- 
marthen, as well as for Buckinghamshire. 

His town address is 29 Cumberland Place, W., and he owns 
Marden Park, Surrey, White Hall, Norfolk, and Alte Cadno in S. 
Wales, in addition to Harleyford. 

Sir William's heir is his cousin, Sir Gilbert Clayton-East, 
Bt. 

A member of the Carlton and Pratt's Clubs, Sir William 
finds his chief relaxations in travelling and scholastic interests. 




14-2 



4 



Thomas Somers Vernon Cocks, Esq., B.A. 



Cbomas Somers Vernon Cocks, €sq. t B J. 



ONE of the chief landowners in the High Wycombe district is 
Mr. Thomas Somers Vernon Cocks. Born in 1850, Mr. Cocks 
is the eldest son of the late Thomas Somers Cocks, of Thames 
Bank, Buckinghamshire, by his wife, Sarah Louisa, the daughter 
of the late Charles Wynne Griffith Wynne, of Voelas and 
Cefnamwlch, over the Welsh border. 

Eton and later Christ Church, Oxford, afforded Mr. Thomas 
Somers Vernon Cocks his e lucation, and in 1872, he graduated as 
Bachelor of Arts. 

By his marriage with Ethel Mary, the daughter of the late 
Horace D. Fellowes, he has four children, his heir being an only 
son, Charles Vernon Cocks, born in 1895. 

Mr. Cocks' town residence is 31 Lowndes Street, S.W., and 

he is a member of both the Oxford and Cambridge and Carlton 
Clubs. 



H5 



i 4 4 



The Right Hon. The Baron Cottesloe, D.L., J. P., M.A. 



CDe Right Ron. Cbc Baron Cottesloe, 

D.C, 3.P., l».il. 



SIR THOMAS FRANCIS FREMANTLE, Bt, 2nd Baron 
Cottesloe, and a Baron of the Austrian Empire, was born on 
January 30th, 1830, and thus enjoys the distinction of having 
lived in five reigns. 

The eldest son of Thomas Francis, 1st Baron Cottesloe, by 
his wife, Louisa Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Field-Marshal 
Sir George Nugent, Bt., and grandson of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Francis Fremantle, G.C.B., of Trafalgar and Copenhagen fame, 
the present Lord Cottesloe graduated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
taking 1st Class Honours in Classics, and was called to the Bar at 
the Inner Temple in 1855. 

Deeply interested in County affairs, his lordship represented 
Buckinghamshire in Parliament from 1876- 1885, prior to his 
accession to the title in 1890, was formerly Chairman of the 
Quarter Sessions, and at the present time acts as a Deputy 
Lieutenant, a Magistrate and a County Alderman for Bucking- 
hamshire. 



H5 



In 1859, he married the Lady Augusta Henrietta, the 
2nd daughter of John, 2nd Earl of Eldon, and has, with other 
issue, a son and heir, the Hon. Thomas Francis Fremantle, who was 
born in 1862. Lady Cottesloe died in 1906. 

His lordship's Buckinghamshire seat is Swanbourne House, 
near Winslow. He is lord of the manor and chief landowner in 
that district, and patron of one living. 

Lord Cottesloe's town residence is 43, Eaton Square, and he 
is a member of the Carlton and Travellers' Clubs. 




146 



Sir Charles Alfred Cripps, K.C.V.O., K.C., M.P., B.C.L., M.A, J.P. 



Sir CDarles Alfred Cripps, K.C.V.O., K.C., 

i».p., B.C.C., nm., 3.p. 



IT is given to few among the leading members of the legal pro- 
fession to have the honour of acting as Attorney General to 
three generations of the Princes of Wales, and yet this 
distinction has been enjoyed by Sir Alfred (as he is generally called) 
Cripps, who, from 1895 ac ted in this capacity for the late King 
Edward VII., until his accession to the throne in 1901, when he 
filled a similar office for our present King, George V., until the 
lamented death of the well-beloved late King last year, when Sir 
Alfred became Attorney General to the Heir Apparent, Prince 
Edward of Wales. 

Descended from a family that has been seated at Cirencester 
for over four hundred years, many of whose members have been 
returned to Parliament for this division of Gloucestershire, Sir 
Alfred is an able representative of a house well-known in Legal, 
Parliamentary and Ecclesiastical circles. His great-grandfather, 
Joseph Cripps, of Cirencester, sat for that borough in no less than 
ten Parliaments, an eloquent testimony of appreciation on the part 
of his constituents, which renders further comment superfluous. He 



HI 



was, moreover, a Chairman of the Quarter Sessions, a 
Magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for his County. By his 
marriage with Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Benjamin Harrison, 
of Lee, on April 27th, 1765, Mr. Joseph Cripps had a son, the Rev. 
Henry Cripps, M.A., Vicar of Preston All Saints and Stonehouse, 
and grandfather of Sir Alfred. This gentlemen married Judith, the 
fourth daughter of William Lawrence, of Circencester, the father of 
Sir William Lawrence, the 1st Baronet of his family, and one of 
the most celebrated surgeons of the nineteenth century, who had the 
additional advantage of pursuing his studies under the guidance of 
the great Dr. Abernethy. The Rev. Henry Cripps died on 
November 7th, 1861, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir 
Alfred's father, Henry William Cripps, of Beechwood, of 
Parliamentary Bar fame, a fine ecclesiastical lawyer, and the author 
of that famous work, " The Church and Clergy," which has run 
through several editions. Born in March, 1815, Mr. Henry William 
Cripps graduated at Oxford with the degree of M.A., and choosing 
the law for a profession, was called to the Bar on May 8th, 1840. 
Some quarter of a century later he took silk, and was Benched in the 
same year. In addition to this, he was Recorder of Lichfield, and 
Chancellor of the Diocese of Oxford. On March 25th, 1845, he 
married his cousin, Julia, the eldest daughter of Charles Lawrence, 
of the Querns, Circencester, Sir Alfred being the third son of this 
union. Besides the immense amount of work involved by his 
multifarious duties, Mr. Henry William Cripps was a practical 
friend to Buckinghamshire, and it is gratifying to note that his 
painstaking labours as an active Magistrate, Chairman and Vice- 
Chairman of the Quarter Sessions for a period of twenty-five years, 
were duly appreciated by its inhabitants, and the first County 
Council with one consent elected him as their Chairman, well 
assured that their fortunes were safe in his hands. His death 
on August 14th, 1899, at the ripe age of eighty-four, was a matter 
of deep regret to all who knew him. 



148 



Born on October 3rd, 1852, Sir Alfred Cripps received his 
education from Winchester College, and thence passed to a brilliant 
career at New College, Oxford. In 1873 he took a first class in 
Mathematical Moderations, a similar rank in History in the 
following year, and a first in I aw in 1875, whilst he obtained a 
first as a Bachelor of Civil Law in 1876. Called to the Bar on 
June 13th, 1877, Sir Alfred joined the Midland Circuit, and later 
became a Bencher of the Middle Temple, having taken silk in 1890, 
and a Member of the Council for the Duchy of Cornwall. On 
October 20th, 1881, he married Theresa, the sixth daughter of 
Richard Potter, of Standish House, Gloucestershire. This lady 
died in 1893, having had issue four sons and a daughter, Sir 
Alfred's heir being Alfred Henry Seddon, who was born in 1882, 
and called to the Bar in 1907. 

As Vicar General of the Provinces of Canterbury and York, 
and Chancellor for the latter City, Sir Alfred, like his father, is an 
authority on ecclesiastical law, and the author of a valuable work 
entitled "A Practical Treatise on the Law relating to the Church." 
Since 1895, St. Stephen's has claimed much of his attention. 
Having sat for Stroud in Gloucestershire for five years, he next 
represented Stretford, in Lancashire, from 1901 to 1906, and has 
been twice returned for the Southern Division of Buckinghamshire. 
Iu politics Sir Alfred is a Unionist and an Imperialist. He is noted 
for a keenness of insight in debate that has often stood his party in 
good stead in the House, and on November 9th, 1908, was created 
a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Formerly a 
Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, and a Governor and Fellow 
of Winchester College, Sir Alfred, despite his busy Parliamentary 
life, yet finds time to discharge the duties of a Magistrate for 
Buckinghamshire, and like his father, is Chairman of the Quarter 
Sessions. 

As an author, he has also written, " A Proposal for Equal 
Representation," and a " Treatise on the Principles of the 



49 



Law of Compensation," both characterised by his customary grip 
of the subject in hand. 

Sir Alfred's one recreation, that of farming, finds practical 
expression in his beautiful Buckinghamshire home at Parmoor 
House, near Henley-on-Thames, where, when his Country permits, 
he is content to rest awhile from his parliamentary labours, and 
turn his attention from politics to agriculture, amid ideal 
surroundings. 

Sir Alfred's town address is 15, Queen's Gate Gardens, S.W., 
and he is a member of the Oxford and Cambridge, Marlborough, 
Athenaeum and Carlton Clubs. 



W 



2, 



150 



Sir John Lindsay Dashwood, Premier Baronet of Great Britain 




Sir John Lindsay Dashwood. 




West Wycombe Parle. 




The Morning^Room atjjWest Wycombe Park. 




Old Loft in Church Lane, West Wycombe. 



Sir 3ol)n Cindsap Da$bu)ood t 

Premier Baronet or Great Britain. 



BY the untimely death of his father, the late Sir Robert 
John Dashwood, the gth baronet of his line, on July gth 
1908, at the early age of forty-nine, the Premier Baronetcy 
of Great Britain devolved upon his youthful son, Sir John Lindsay 
Dashwood, (who was born on April 25th 1896) by his marriage on 
July 25th 1893 with Clara Adelaide Ida Conyers, the eldest daughter 
of Major William Bayford Lindsay, formerly of the 14th Regiment. 
Sir John is the second son of the late Sir Robert and Lady Dash- 
wood, an infant elder son, Robert Francis Lindsay having been 
born on September 17th 1894, who only survived his birth a few 
months. Two other sons were born of this marriage, Robert 
Henry Lindsay, who came into the world on November 17th 1898, 
and is the heir presumptive to the title, and Richard Lindsay, born 
in January 1900, who only lived four days. A daughter, Ida Helen 
Lindsay, was born on December 2nd 1903. 



I5 1 



Of Dorset origin, the Dashwood family subsequently removed 
into Somersetshire, and settled at Vellow Wood at an early date. 
From the marriage of Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden, Somerset, 
with Elizabeth Sweeting on September 2nd 1590, spring the three 
great branches of this ancient family, their eldest son, John, being 
the ancestor of the Essex and Suffolk Dashwoods ; the second son, 
Francis, of Vellow Wood, is the direct ancestor of the present 
baronet of West Wycombe ; and from the fifth son, George, of 
Hackney, sometime Alderman of London, the Oxfordshire Dash- 
woods are descended. 

Sir John Dashwood's ancestor, Francis, the second son of 

Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden, was born in 1603, and as a Turkey 

merchant and a City Alderman was a well-known figure in the 

London of his day. By his first marriage with Alice, the sister of 

a brother Alderman, Edmund Sleigh, he had, with other issue, a 

daughter, Elizabeth, who became the wife of Thomas Lewes, of 

West Wycombe, also an Alderman of London ; and two sons, the 

eldest, Sir Samuel, knight, represented the City in Parliament in 

1685, and again from 1689 to 1690, whilst 1702 saw him Lord 

Mayor of London. The third son, Sir Francis, sometime the 

member for Winchelsea, was born in 1658, and created a baronet 

in 1707. He was married four times, and today from a grey 

marble monument in St. Lawrence's Church in West Wycombe, it 

may be gathered that : — 

He was exemplary, punctual and honest, and with 
a quiet conscience departed this life November 4th 1724, 
aged 75 years. He married four wives, Mary Jennings, 
lady Mary Fane, Mary King and lady Elizabeth Windsor, 
and left seven children : Susanna, Mary, Rachel, Francis, 
Mary, John and Charles. The last three wives lie in 
the family vault, as do dame Susanna Bridgman, his 
first daughter, and Mary, her daughter, and also Charles 
Dashwood King, the said Sir Francis Dashwood's third 
son, who was cut off at Paris in the flower of his age, 
whose rectitude of mind and manners made him an 
ornament, and his death a loss, to social life. 



152 



By Lady Mary Fane, the daughter of Vere, the fourth Earl 
of Westmoreland, and one of the co-heirs of the Barony of Le 
Despencer, whom he married on May 30th 1705, Sir Francis had a 
son, also Francis, who was born in December 1708, succeeded his 
father in the title in 1724, and the following year, after the death 
of his uncle, John, Earl of Westmoreland, was raised to the peerage 
as Baron Le Despencer, in right of his mother. 

Sir Francis Dashwood, the second Baronet, or Lord Le 
Despencer, to give him his later title, travelled to a considerable 
extent in his youthful days, after which he occupied many and 
varied positions of importance, including those of Chief of the 
War Office, Treasurer of the Chambers and Master of the Wardrobe, 
whilst under Lord Bute, he filled the office of Chancellor of the 
Exchequer from 1762 to 1763, although it must be confessed that 
his talents did not lie in the direction of finance, his qualifications 
being summed up by a wit of the time as a " man to whom the 
sum of five figures was an impenetrable secret." One measure 
introduced during his short administration proved most unpopular, 
being nothing less than a proposed tax of four shillings per 
hogshead on Cider. Mutterings of insurrection were plainly heard 
in the cider producing counties, and Sir Francis resigned. 

Of his undoubted eccentricity many tales are told. But he 
rebuilt the Church of St. Lawrence on the top of the hill at West 
Wycombe, and shortly before his death, in 1781, had the caves 
half way down the same hill, excavated, while the straight piece of 
road that connects High with West Wycombe at the present time, 
was made under his direction, in 1752, the obelisk at the corner of 
the Brabenham road being placed there in commemoration of its 
construction. 

Besides acting as Joint Postmaster General for many years, 
Lord Le Despencer was Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire, and 
evinced a keen interest in the Royal Bucks (King's Own) Militia, 
in which he held the rank of Colonel. 



153 



This representative of the family married Sarah, the daughter 
and heiress of Thomas Gould, of Iver, Bucks, on December 19th 
1745, the lady being then the widow of Sir Richand Ellys, the 
second baronet of his family. Dying without issue, the title next 
devolved upon his half brother, Sir John, the son of Sir Francis, 
the first baronet, by his third wife, Mary, the daughter of Major 
King; and the third baronet, known as Sir John Dashwood-King, 
assumed his maternal surname by act of Parliament in 1742. His 
Parliamentary achievements were confined to a three years' 
representation of Bishop's Castle, whilst his son, also Sir John, the 
4th baronet, sat for Wycombe in no less than nine Parliaments 
and was an active magistrate for Bucks. By his marriage with 
Mary Anne, the daughter of Theodore Henry Broadhead, of Monk 
Bretton, in Yorkshire, he had, a son, Sir George Henry Dashwood, 
afterwards 5th baronet, and member for Buckinghamshire from 
1832 to 1835, who also represented Wycombe, his father's seat, 
from 1837 to 1862, when dying without issue, the title reverted to his 
brother, Sir John Richard Dashwood, who thus became the sixth 
baronet, and on his death, unmarried, passed to Sir Edwin Hare 
Dashwood, his nephew, (the only son of Sir John Richard 
Dashwood's younger brother, Captain Edwin Sandys Dashwood, 
of the 10th Regiment) and grandfather of the present represent- 
ative of the family, who was born on 7th September 1825. On 
October 25th 1853, Sir Edwin married Roberta Henrietta, the 
daughter of Sir Robert Abercromby, bt„ his two elder surviving 
sons being Sir Edwin Abercromby Dashwood, the 8th baronet, 
who had practical experience of gum digging in New Zealand in 
early life, and married on August 24th 1889, Florence, the only 
daughter of Frederick Norton, of Mangantare, New Zealand, 
who, after his death, in 1893, without male issue, became 
the wife of Mr. William Selby Low T ndes, of Whaddon 
Chase. The baronetcy then passed to Sir Edwin's brother, 
the late Sir Robert John Dashwood, the 9th Bt., and the 



154 



father of Sir John Lindsay Dashwood, who was born on June 3rd 
1859. As a Magistrate, a Deputy Lieutenant, and a member of 
the County Council, he proved a good friend to Buckinghamshire, 
and one who could ill be spared. 

In early times, the manor of West Wycombe was in the See 
of Winchester, and its profits went to the support of the monks 
thereof. 

According to the Domesday Record ; — 

" Walchelin bishop of Winchester holds Wicumbe, 
for which he is taxed at 19 hides. There are 23 
carucates of land, in demesne there are five hides and 
three plough lands ; there are 27 villeins with eight 
copy holders who occupy 19 plough lands. There are 
seven servants, and three mills worth 20 shillings per 
annum, and a fishery which produces a thousand eels ; 
seven carucates of pasture, and pannage in the woods 
for a thousand hogs. For all dues it is worth £15 ; 
when the bishop received it ^"10 ; in the reign of King 
Edward £"12. This manor was allotted to the Monks of 
Winchester for their support, and is now so applied. 
Stigand held it in the reign of King Edward. 

In the reign of Edward VI., Bishop Poynet of Winchester, 
surrendered West Wycombe manor in exchange, and it was allotted 
by the young King to his uncle, the Protector Somerset. Later, 
Queen Mary restored it to its former See, but on the accession of 
Queen Elizabeth, John White, as a Roman Catholic, was deprived 
of that bishopric, and the estate reverted to the Crown until 1602 
when it was granted to Sir Robert Dormer, a member of a very 
ancient family, whose ancestors accompanied King Edward the 
Confessor to England on his return from Normandy in 1042. His 
successor, also Robert, was created Earl of Carnarvon, and fell at 
Newbury in 1643, in the Royalist cause. It was Charles Dormer, 
the second and last Earl of Carnarvon of that creation, who, having 
experienced the usual reverse of fortune incident to hostility to the 
Parliamentary leaders, disposed of West Wycombe in 1670 to 

155 



Thomas Lewes, the Alderman husband of Elizabeth, the daughter 

of Francis Dashwood, merchant, before mentioned, and in 1698 

Lewes conveyed it to his brothers-in-law, Sir Samuel and Francis 

Dashwood, afterwards the first baronet. Later, the manor became 

vested solely in the younger brother, and has since continued in the 
family. 

West Wycombe park was built by Sir Francis Dashwood, 
the first baronet (it is thought on the site of an older 
house), and enlarged and ornamented by Lord le Despencer 
who also designed the gardens and an ornamental lake 
supplied by the little river Wick, that adds not a little to the 
charm of the well wooded park of some three hundred acres, and 
grounds. 

The house, an imposing structure in several styles, is graced 
by a beautiful Ionic Portico on its West Front, once called " The 
Temple of Bacchus, and a large statue of the god is still to be 
seen within. The South Front contains a colonnade 112 feet in 
length, surmounted by a loggia, and ornamented by the busts of 
heroes of antiquity and celebrities, including Lord le Despencer. 

Within, the art of Josephi Borgnis has imparted magnificence 
to the ceilings and portions of the walls, his frescoes chiefly 
representing mythological subjects. The Dining Room door case 
is of variegated marble, and the chimney piece a fine specimen of 
the sculptor's art, representing Androcles and the Lion, whilst in 
the corners of the room are beautiful marble groups of the Four 
Seasons, after the antiques at Nocton, in Lincolnshire. The 
Billiard Room is 34 feet long, and contains a large painting, 
depicting the history of Medusa. Another room leading off the 
magnificent hall is tapestry clad, the work skilfully portraying a 
Harvest Home, Boors at a Game of Four Corners, and a Fish 
Market. This was used by George III as a sittingroom, on his 
various visits, and the adjoining apartment still known as George 
Ill's bedroom has a frescoed ceiling and freize of figures in Wedg- 

156 



wood design. The King's Bed, with its original silk hangings, 
together with his huge leathern brass-bound chest, ornamented 
with crowns, are still among the treasures of West Wycombe Park. 
The ceiling of the State Drawing Room is painted with a 
representation of a feast of the old time Gods. The white marble 
mantelpiece represents an exquisite Venus, surrounded by flowers 
birds and cupids, and the Italian, Spanish and old English cabinets 
are specimens of rare and wonderful workmanship. The furniture 
as well as the mirrors is mainly in various styles of exquisite old 
Chippendale, and a source of delight to the artistic eye. There is 
moreover, a good library, and the grand staircase is Chippendale 
inlaid Sheriton. In the grounds, on an island, encircled 
with trees, is another apartment known as the Music Room. 

Among the large collection of pictures the house contains 
mention must be made of the portraits of Sir Francis Dashwood, 
the first baronet, who died in 1724, the two Marys, his first and 
third wives, and Lord le Despencer, while a " Holy Family " by 
Rubens and " Lazarus Rising from the Dead ' by Paul Veronese 
are very fine. 

West Wycombe's two churches at the summit and foot of the 
same hill are both due to the generosity of members of the 
Dashwood family. The former, that of St. Lawrence, was 
practically rebuilt by Lord le Despencer in 1763, at a cost of £"6,000, 
and contains many unusual features, among them being a huge ball 
at the top of the embattled western tower, capable of seating 
twelve persons. In the church itself, each windowseat boasts of a 
cupboard. Mahogany arm-chairs, arranged to pull out from steps, 
form both reading desk and pulpit. The font is of carved oak, in 
the shape of a serpent stalking its prey, and amid the four birds 
seated on a flat top is placed the silver gilt cup. At the east end of 
the church is the roofless mausoleum built by Lord le Despencer for 
members of his family, and in the chancel is a painting by Borgnais 
of The Last Supper. There are also several tablets to the 



157 



Dashwoods. From its inconvenient position, St. Lawrence Church 
is only used during the summer. 

The other Church of St. Paul at the foot of the same hill, 
was built by Elizabeth, the wife of Sir George Henry Dashwood, 
the fifth baronet, and opened in 1875. 

The present Lady Dashwood, too, has always evinced a 
deep interest in all parochial matters, and has recently been 
re-elected Churchwarden for West W) combe. 

Sir John Lindsay Dashwood is lord of the Manor of West 

Wycombe, the owner of some five thousand acres, and the patron 
of one living. 



£ 

^ 




158 



The Right Hon. The Baron Decies, D.S.O. 



Che Right fton, Che Baron Decks, D.S.O. 



mAJOR JOHN GRAHAME HOPE DE LA POER HORSLEY- 
BERESFORD, late of the 7th Hussars, succeeded his 
brother, William Marcus de la Poer, as 5th Baron Decies, 
on July 30th, 19 10. 

Born in 1 866, his lordship is the second son of William 
Robert John, 3rd Lord Decies, by his wife, Catherine Anne, the 
daughter of William Dent Dent, of Short Flatt Tower, Northumber- 
land, and the descendant in the fourth degree of Marcus Beresford, 
Earl of Tyrone. 

His lordship has had much military experience in South 
Africa. In 1896 his services under Colonel Plumer in the Matabele 
Relief Forces called for mention in the despatches. He was in 
command of the 37th Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry in 1902, 
and his leadership of the Tribal Horse in Somaliland from 1903-4, 
gained for him the Distinguished Service Order and a second 
mention in the despatches. 



159 



His lordship is unmarried, has acted as A.D.C. to H.R.H. 
the Duke of Connaught and Lord Connemara, when Governor of 
Madras, lie is a Major of the Reserve of Officers, and the owner 
of The Craig, Windermere, and Beresford Lodge, Birchington, as 
well as his Buckinghamshire seat at Sefton Park. 

Lord Decies' town residence is 25, Wilton Place. He is a 
good sportsman, and a member of the Naval and Military, Cavalry 
and Kildare Street Clubs. 



m 




160 



Major James Bogle Delap, J. P. 




Major Delap. 




The Manor House, Lillingston Lovel. 



Iflajor James Bogle Delap, 3-P. 



mAJOR JAMES BOGLE DELAP, of Monellan, Killygordon, 
County Donegal, and the Manor House, Lillingstone Loveh 
in Buckinghamshire, is of Scottish descent, Hugh DunloP 
(as the name was originally rendered) the son of Alan Dunlop, of 
Irving, in Ayrshire, having been the first to leave Scotland and 
settle in Sligo, about 1600. Dunlop and Delap are the same name 
— in the days when few could spell or write, there was no very 
marked distinction. Hugh Dunlop's grandson, Robert, altered his 
family name to Delap, and was living at Ballyshannon some eighty 
years later. The great-grandson of Robert Delap, also Robert, of 
Monellan, married Mary Anne, the only child of James Bogle, about 
1776, by whom he had, with other issue, three sons, the eldest, 
Samuel Francis Delap, of Monellan, being the grandfather of the 
subject of the present sketch ; the second, Colonel James Bogle, of 
Stoke Park, Surrey, married Harriet, the eldest daughter and co-heiress 
of Colonel Thomas Cranley Onslow, the second son of Thomas, Earl 
of Onslow, and grandfather of the present Earl, and the third son, 



161 



William Drummond, of Monasterboice in Co. Louth, Ireland, took 
the name of Dunlop definitely. Colonel James Bogle Delap 
purchased the Lillingstone Lovel estate in 1821, and dying in 1850, 
without issue, bequeathed the property to his widow for life, after 
which it came to his nephew, the late Rev. Robert Delap, of 
Monellan, the son of Samuel Francis Delap, and the father of 
Major Delap, by his marriage with Isabella, the youngest daughter 
and co-heir of Sir James Galbraith, the first to hold that now 
extinct baronetcy. 

Born on January 8th, 1847, James Bogle Delap was educated 
at Eton, and on February 7th, 1872, married Marion, the second 
daughter of Dr. Protheroe Smith, by whom he has with other issue, 
a son and heir, James Onslow Kingsmill Delap, who was born in 
1 88 1. The latter by his marriage with Dorothy Audrey, the only 
daughter of Duncan Davison of Sedgefield, Durham, became the 
father of a son, Hugh Alan in 1906, the grandson of Major Delap. 

A Justice of the Peace for Buckinghamshire, an Hon. Major 
(retired), and formerly a Captain in the Royal Bucks Hussars 
Yeomanry Cavalry, Major Delap also acted as High Sheriff for 
Donegal in 1874, an d is Lord of the Manors of Lillingstone Lovel 
in Buckinghamshire, and Netherbury in Bedfordshire. He built 
the present Manor House at Lillingstone Lovel, and came to reside 
there in the year 1887. 

In Domesday times, Lillingstone Lovel belonged to the King, 
but in the latter part of the thirteenth century, it became the 
property of the Dauntesy, or D'Aneci family, for which reason it 
was known as Lillingstone Dauntesy, as well as Lillingstone Magna, 
the neighbouring parish of Lillingstone Dayrell being designated 
Lillingstone Parva. 

William Lovel, of Minster Lovel, was the first to obtain a 
grant of free warren over all the manor and lands of Lillingstone 
Dauntesy about 1366. In 143 1, John, 10th Lord Lovel, was in 



ib2 



possession of this estate, and on the mysterious disappearance of 
his successor, Francis, Lord Lovel, after fighting on behalf of 
Lambert Simnel, at the battle of Stoke in 1487, the estate escheated 
to the Crown. By one of those most probably compulsory exchanges 
dear to the heart of that most arbitrary of monarchs, King 
Henry VIII., Lillingstone Lovel passed into the possession of Sir 
Nicholas Wentworth in 1546, and more than a century later, in 
1682, it was carried by marriage into the Cresswell family, when its 
then lord, John Cresswell, took the additional name of Wentworth. 
In 1784, on the death of William Wentworth Cresswell, the 
property passed to his brother-in-law, Major Drake, for life, after 
which it was left to his cousin, the Hon. Edward Onslow, in whose 
time the estate was greatly neglected, and the old mansion of 16th 
century date, demolished, whilst the ancient deer-park was con- 
verted into pasture land. In the early part of the next century, 
as previously mentioned, the estate was purchased by Colonel 
James Bogle Delap, of Stoke Park, the great-uncle of Major Delap. 

Another interesting fact about Lillingstone Lovel is that, 
although the parish lies close to the borders of Northamptonshire, 
yet, until 1844, it was always considered to belong to the County 
of Oxford, and is shown as such in all the old maps of the County. 

Major Delap is the last remaining representative of the Bucks 
Horse Artillery, which continued to exist after their obsolete guns 
had been given up, and they were granted the privilege of wearing 
their old uniform though they were incorporated into the Royal 
Bucks Hussars, in which Regiment they worked as the First 
Squadron, and formed on the right of the Line. The other officers 
who served in this Squadron with Major Delap were: — Major 
General the late Lord Chesham, K.C.B., Lieut. -Colonel Purefoy 
Fitzgerald, Lieut. -Colonel Alfred Locker, Arthur Dent, Esq., and 
Walter Carlile, Esq. 

Major Delap is a member of the Carlton Club. 

163 



164 



The Right Hon. The Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.L., J. P. 




The Right Hon. The Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.L., J. P. 




irt and Grounds. 




Taplow Court and Grounds. 




«: 



.'.Central Hal], Taplow Court. 



V 



Che Right bon. 
Che Baron Desborough, K.C.V.O., D.C., 3.P. 

B.fl. 



ONE of the finest athletes and sportsmen of his time is Lord 
Desborough, the President of the Marylebone Cricket Club, 
the (popular, re-elected) President of the Thames Punting 
Club, the winner of the Amateur Punting Championship for three 
years, and the Ex-President of both the Oxford University Athletic 
and Boating Clubs, also President of the British Olympic 
Association, Amateur Fencing Association, Lawn Tennis Association 
and Croquet Association. 

His lordship's sporting achievements date from his school 
and College days. After playing in the Harrow Eleven in the early 
seventies, and representing Oxford in the three miles race against 
Cambridge in 1876, he took part in the race against the latter 
University in 1877-78. As a Swimmer, he enjoys the distinction of 
having twice traversed Niagara. Flis lordship is a well-known 
Alpine climber, and as a hunter in both India and the Rockies has 
had many exciting experiences when in pursuit of big game ; whilst 
his name will be long remembered as the winner of the Epee prize 
in the military Tournament of 1904-6. 

Among this variety of sportsmanlike pursuits, perhaps his 
lordship inclines more especially towards rowing. His has been 



■65 



the honour of having stroked an eight across the Channel. He is 
indeed a firm believer in the oar as the means whereby the history 
of mankind has been largely moulded. On February 22nd 19 10, in 
a fascinating lecture delivered at the Philosophical Institution in 
Edinburgh, entitled "The Story of the Oar," Lord Desborough 
when indicating the part the oar had played in history, 
remarked : — 

It is true that the use of the oar is now dying out — 
it has been conquered b} stream and other methods of 
Mechanical propulsion — but I hope you will agree 
that I have not exaggerated the importance of the 
part played by the oar in the history of the world. 
Its beat has been heard through the centuries since 
the world began, and the prizes of nations skilled 
in its use have been principalities and empires and 
wealth beyond the dreams of avarice. 

In the world of politics, Lord Desborough represented 
Wycombe from 1900 to 1905 in the Conservative interests, and at 
the present time is Chancellor of the Primrose League. In 1892 he 
sat for Hereford, having previously represented Salisbury from 1880 
to 1882, and from 1885 to 1886; and in 1885 acted as private 
secretary to Sir William Harcourt, at that time Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. 

Since 1904, his lordship has been a member of the Tariff 
Commission, whilst his interest in the agricultural welfare of the 
Country led him to accept the Chairmanship of the Central Chamber 
of Agriculture four years ago. He has officiated in a like capacity 
for the Buckinghamshire Chamber of Agriculture and has identified 
himself with the Royal and Berkshire similar societies. 

The descendant in the fifth degree from Pascoe Grenfell, the 
son of John Grenfell of St. Just's, who was born in 1692, and settled 
in Penzance Lord Desborough's great-great-grandfather, also 
Pascoe Grenfell, the second son of the ancestor of the same name 



166 



before mentioned, took up his abode in Marazion, in Cornwall, and 
later became a London merchant, after which he was appointed 
Consul to the States of Holland. By his wife, Mary, the daughter 
of William Tremenheere, an attorney of Penzance, he had issue 
four sons and four daughters, the eldest, his namesake, being Pascoe 
Grenfell, the politician, who wasborn at Marazion, on September 
3rd 1 76 1, and subsequently represented Great Marlow and Penrhyn 
in Parliament during a period of service in the House of Commons 
that extended over twenty five years. A staunch supporter of 
Wilberforce as regards the abolition of slavery, Mr. Pascoe Grenfell, 
himself an authority on finance, gave much of his attention to the 
proceedings of the Bank of England ; and the custom of publishing 
accounts periodically by the Bank was inaugurated chiefly through 
his influence. Mr. Grenfell also identified himself with his father's 
and uncle's extensive London business, connected with tin and 
copper ores, and later was associated with Thomas Williams of 
Temple House, Great Marlow, in the development of the industries 
of Anglesey and Cornwall, of which concerns he ultimately became 
the guiding spirit. As a financier, his speeches on the currency 
were remarkable for the clear straight-forward manner jn which his 
statements were presented. Mr. Grenfell also filled the office of 
Governor of the Royal Exchange Insurance Company, and was one 
of the Commissioners of the Lieutenancy of London. His ardour 
for politics remained the ruling passion throughout his life, his last 
contest being gallantly fought' at the age of seventy, when he stood 
for Buckinghamshire in the Liberal interests in 1831, and put up a 
splendid four days' fight ; although, as a strict supporter of the 
purity principles in the conduct of elections (and the corruption of 
the day was notorious), he stood no chance of being elected. 

Mr. Pascoe Grenfell also enjoyed the friendship of many 
distinguished Whigs, including Brougham, Grattan, Ponsonby, 
Romilly, Whitbread, and many others. He was twice married. 
By his first wife, his cousin, Charlotte Granville, who died on May 

167 



2nd i79°> ne na d, with other issue, a son, Charles Pascoe, who was 
born on April 4th 1790, who by his marriage on June 22nd 1819 
with the Lady Georgiana Isabella Frances Molyneux, the eldest 
daughter of Philip, the second Earl of Sefton, had two sons. The 
elder, Charles William, the father of Lord Desborough, was born 
on March 17th 1823, subsequently represented Sandwich and 
Windsor in Parliament, and was identified with the 2nd Middlesex 
Militia, in which he held the rank of Captain. By his marriage 
with Georgina Caroline, the eldest daughter of the late Rt. Hon. 
William Saunders Sebright Lascelles, and granddaughter of Henry, 
the second Earl of Harewood, Captain Grenfell connected his own 
with a family of high antiquity, who have played their part in 
history since the days of the first Edward, his eldest son being 
William Henry Grenfell, the present Lord Desborough, who was 
born on October 30th 1855. The death of his father, Captain 
Grenfell, occurred only six years later, and his lordship therefore 
succeeded his grandfather, Mr. Charles Pascoe Grenfell, on his 
death on March 21st 1867. 

By his second wife, the Hon. Georgiana St. Leger, the 
youngest daughter of the first Viscount Doneraile, Mr. Pascoe 
Grenfell, the great-grandfather of Lord Desborough, became the 
grandfather of Lord Grenfell, of Butler's Court, Beaconsfield, and 
Mr. Charles Seymour Grenfell, of Elibank, Taplow ; whilst his 
two youngest daughters, Charlotte Maria French and Frances 
Eliza, married respectively, James Anthony Froude, the historian, 
and the Rev. Charles Kingsley, Rector of Eversley, Chaplain to 
Queen Victoria, and the well-known author and novelist. 

On Febuary 17th 1887, Lord Desborough married Ethel 
Anne Priscilla, a co-heir of the Barony of Butler, and the daughter 
of the late Hon. Julian Henry Charles Fane by his wife, the Lady 
Adina Eliza Anne, the third daughter of George Augustus, the 
sixth Earl Cowper, and has, with other issue, a son and heir, Julian 

168 



Henry Francis, born on March 30th 1888, who is now a 
Lieutenant in the 1st Dragoons. 

In 1882, Lord Desborough, to give him his present title, 
(although he was not raised to the peerage until December 30th 
1905), acted as Parliamentary Groom in Waiting, aad among 
other honours, he ranks as a Knight of Grace of St. John of 
Jeruslem, a member of the Grecian Royal Order of the Redeemer, 
and a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. 

Commerce too owes much to his executive ability. As 
President of the London Chamber of Commerce, his lordship leaves 
no stone unturned to further the prosperity of Home Trade and 
Manufactures, and strongly advocates the introduction of British 
and Empire Trademarks, by which intending purchasers may be 
able to see for themselves the country of origin of goods, and one 
and all furthur the national cause, by buying in the home markets. 

Nor, among the manifold occupations of a more than 
usually busy life, has Lord Desborough been neglectful of his duty 
towards Buckinghamshire. He filled the office of High Sheriff for 
the county in 1890, acted as Mayor of Maidenhead from 1895 to 
1897, and is a Justice of the Peace for both Berks and Bucks. 

The Chairmanship of the Thames Conservancy Board 
makes other demands on his valuable time. He is a Deputy 
Lieutenant for the Tower Hamlets, and has, among his other 
multifarious occupations, yet found leisure to contribute to the 
world of literature forceful articles on such subjects as Bimetallism, 
the House of Lords, Rowing, and the like. 

Taplow Court, his lordship's beautiful Buckinghamshire 
seat, is an imposing red brick mansion, with Bath stone dressings, 
after the Tudor style of architecture, standing in a well timbered 
park and grounds of about two hundred acres in extent, the latter 
being well planted wiih choice shrubs. Among the many 

169 



interesting features is an especially fine avenue of Cedars of 
Lebanon, and the beauty of the hanging woods along the banks of 
the Thames between the Taplow and Cliveden estates is unrivalled 
in English pastoral scenery. 

From the house, distant views of Windsor Castle and the 
spires of Eton College add to the charm of its surroundings, whilst 
Taplow Court enjoys the further distinction of having been among 
the earliest country seats honoured by a visit from their Majesties, 
the present King and Queen, who motored over from Windsor this 
Spring, on a visit to Lord and Lady Desborough. 

Lord Desborough owns Taplow manor, which in former 
davs was held by Sir Henry Guildford under the Crown in the 
time of James I. after which it passed to the Hampsons, and about 
1700, Sir Dennis Hampson sold the property to the Earl of Orkney, 
a distinguished soldier in the days of the great Duke of Marl- 
borough and author of many improvements at Taplow Court, 
including the beautiful Norman Saloon, with its polished marble 
pillars supporting fine ornamental arches. 

In August 1852, the manor passed by purchase to Mr. 
Charles Pascoe Grenfell, the grandfather of Lord Desborough. 

Within the Church of St. Nicholas, at Taplow, a modern 
structure, standing near the site of the former old church, is the 
Grenfell family pew, wherein may be seen a brass to Captain 
Charles William Grenfell, Lord Grenfell's father, who died in 1861. 
The church also contains a large brass to Mr. Pascoe St. Leger 
Grenfell, the father of Lord Grentell, and another to Claud George 
Grenfell, the brother of Lord Desborough, formerly a Lieutenant 
in Thorneycroft's Horse, who was killed during the South African 
War, at Spion Kop, on January 24th 1900. 

The ancient churchyard, which is close to Taplow Court, 
derives additional interest to the antiquarian, from the tumulus 



I70 



which was opened in 1883, and found to contain many interesting 
Anglo-Saxon relics, in the shape of gold fibulae, a gold buckle, an 
iron sword, silver armlets, etc., which were subsequently presented 
to the British Museum. 

Lord Desborough is a keen rider to hounds, an enthusiastic 
fisherman, and takes full advantage of the facilities afforded by the 
Thames in the neighbourhood of Taplow for the enjoyment of both 
rowing and punting when his duties permit. 

His lordship is a member of the Travellers', Turf, Bath and 
Carlton Clubs. 




171 



7 



172 



The Right Hon. The Baron Devonport, P.C., D.L., J. P. 



Che Right Bon. Che Baron Deoonport, 

P.C, DC, 3.P. 



SIR HUDSON EWBANKE KEARLEY, created a Baronet on 
July 22nd 1908, was sworn of the Privy Council in October 
of the following year, and raised to the Peerage, as Baron 
Devonport, of Wittington, in Buckinghamshire, on July 15th 1910. 

The youngest son of the late George Ewbanke Kearley, of 
Uxbridge, by his wife, Mary Ann, the daughter of Charles Hudson, 
of Old Ford, Lord Devonport was born on September 1st 1856. 

The Liberal Member for Devonport for many years, his 
lordship was appointed the first Chairman of the Port of London 
authority in 1909, previously he held office as Parliamentary 
Secretary to the Board of Trade, and in earlier years, was Senior 
Partner in the well-known firm of India Merchants, Kearley and 
Tonge. 



! 73 



In January 1888, he married Selina, the youngest daughter 
of Edward Chester of Blisworth, in Northamptonshire, and has, 
with other issue, a son and heir, the Hon. Gerald Chester Kearley 
who was born in 1890. 

Yet another eminent man who owes his education to 
Cranleigh, Lord Devonport is a Magistrate for both Surrey and 
Buckinghamshire, and a Deputy Lieutenant for the latter County. 
In 1898 he purchased his beautiful seat at Wittington from the 
University of Oxford, and in 1903 restored the Old Manor House, 
an interesting building of 15th century date. 

His lordship's town residence is 41 Grosvenor Place, W., 
and he is also the owner of Gwylfa Hiraerthog, in North Wales, 
a good sportsman, and a member of the Reform and Devonshire 
Clubs. 




*74 



Coningsby Ralph Disraeli, Esq., D.L., J. P. 



Coningsbp Ralph Disraeli, esq., D.C., 3.p» 



CHE present owner of picturesque Hughenden, Mr. Coningsby 
Ralph Disraeli, was born on February 25th 1867, being 

the only son of the late Ralph Disraeli, some time Deputy 
Clerk to Parliament, by his wife, Katherine, the daughter of the 
late Charles Trevor, and nephew and heir of one of England's 
greatest statesmen, the late Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield. 

Charterhouse School and New College, Oxford, afforded Mr- 
Disraeli his education, and on March 2nd 1897, ne married Marion 
Grace, the only daughter of the late Edward Silva, of Testcombe, 
in Hampshire. 

•\s a citizen, Mr. Disraeli is ever mindful of his obligations, 
he is a magistrate for Buckinghamshire, a Deputy-Lieutenant, and 
a County Alderman ; whilst his interest in, and sense of the 
importance of the Territorial movement is exemplified by his 
connection with the Royal Bucks Hussars Yeomanry, in which he 
holds the rank of Major. 

In politics, Mr. Disraeli is a staunch Conservative, and 
represented the Altrincham Division of Cheshire for no less than 
fourteen years, after which, in 1910, he contested the Rushcliffe 
Division, in Nottinghamshire. 



'75 



The Disraeli family, after a sojourn in Spain, settled for a 
time in Venice, whence Benjamin Disraeli, the great grandfather of 
the present representative of the family, came to England in the 
middle of the eighteenth century. By his wife, Sarah Villareal de 
Seproot, lie left an only child, Isaac Disraeli, formerly of Blooms- 
bury, and later, of Bradenham House, that speculative philosopher, 
omnivorous reader and author, once a frequenter of the Reading 
Room of the British Museum, whose " Curiosities of Literature ," 
" Calamities of Authors ' and " Amenities of Literature" (the last 
written when overtaken by blindness, with the aid of his daughter), 
have long since become popular with the reading public. Bv his 
wife, Maria, the daughter of George Bassevi, he left, with other 
issue, two sons, Benjamin, afterwards the Earl of Beaconsfield, and 
Ralph, the father of Mr. Coningsby Disraeli. 

Devoted to Literature from his youth, Isaac Disraeli wrote 
verse at the age of ten, and in his sixteenth year, greatly daring, 
favoured Dr. Johnson with an example of his poetry. In the light 
of the part politics have played in the lives of his descendants, it is 
surprising that for this member of the family they had no interest ; 
and his eldest son, Benjamin, who was born in 1804, was articled 
to a firm of Solicitors in Old Jewry at the age of seventeen, and 
duly entered Lincoln's Inn in 1824, a prosaic, but eminently useful 
beginning for a boy destined to realise his great ambition : — to be 
Prime Minister of England. 

Benjamin Disraeli's talent for authorship was undoubtedly 
inherited, but his genius for politics was his own. By his marriage 
on August 28th 1839 with Mary Anne, the widow of Wyndham 
Lewis, M.P., of Pantgwynlais Castle, in Glamorganshire, and 
daughter of Captain John Viney Evans of the Royal Navy, he 
gained a true helpmate, and when the Viscountess Beaconsfield 
died on November 30th 1868, her bereaved husband's remark that 
he felt he had no longer a home, was no more than the truth. 



176 



A long political connection with Buckinghamshire, dating 
from 1847, was the Earl's, for he represented that County for almost 
thirty years, throughout the most brilliant period of his life, 
including the time he held the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, 
and his two Premierships, until in 1876 he was created Earl of 
Beaconsfield. Five years later, on April 19th i88r, England, on 
the death of this great, and most far-sighted statesman, mourned a 
national loss. 

Although the interest in Hughenden Manor centres in its 
having been the home of this great man, " Huchendene," as it was 
termed, was owned in Saxon times by Queen Edith, the wife of that 
monastic king, Edward the Confessor, and after the Conquest, was 
numbered among the possessions of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and 
Nigel, the son of Roger de Albigni. 

According to the Domesday Record : — 

William, son of Oger, holds Huchedene, of the 
Bishop, for which he is taxed at ten hides. There are 
ten plough lands. In demesne there are two, and 15 
villeins with three copyholders have eight plough 
lands. There are five servants, two carucates of 
pasture and pannage for 600 hogs. For all dues it is 
worth £10 ; when he received it £6, in the reign of 
Edward the Confessor £"7, when Edith his queen 
possessed it. 

Later, following Bishop Odo's disgrace and banishment, King 
Henry I. granted Huchedene to Geoffrey de Clinton, his Lord 
Chamberlain (the ancestor of the present Lord Clinton), who is 
believed to have constituted this manor part of the endowment 
of his Priory at Kenilworth. At all events the Priors of Kenil- 
worth continued to be lords of Hughenden until the Suppression of 
the Monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. Thereafter, the great 
Dormer family became lords of Hughenden, until, by marriage, it 
passed to Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, and about 1738 the 
estate was purchased by Charles Savage from Sir William Stanhope. 



*77 



Later, in 1786, it devolved upon a niece, Ellen, Countess of 
Conyngham, widow of the first Earl, and subsequently passed to 
her nephew, John Norris, the well-known scholar and antiquary. 
He died in 1845, and very shortly afterwards the estate was pur- 
chased by Benjamin Disraeli. 

Hughenden itself is an imposing square, brick mansion, in 
the Jacobean style, with two wings, beautifully situated within a 
well wooded park, and commanding exquisite views of the sur- 
rounding country. 

One of the most interesting portraits in the Drawing Room 
is that of Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, presented to Lord 
Beaconsfield on his seventieth birthday, and let into a panel of the 
chimney piece is a portrait of the Viscountess Beaconsfield. The 
Library, which looks on to the fine lawns, is a handsome apartment, 
containing a large collection of historical and classical works, and 
here it was that Lord Beaconsfield spent most of his leisure, after 
transacting the affairs of state in his study, which is situate in 
another part of the house. Both hall and staircase are adorned 
with many pictures of celebrities and friends. The ceiling of the 
Entrance Hall is finely groined, whilst the chief feature of the 
Dining Room is a curious arch, wherein the horizontal and pointed 
styles are wonderfully blended. 

Without the house, in the grounds, are extensive lawns, 
graced by stately peacocks, and planted with rare shrubs, not the 
least remarkable being the number of young cedars that were 
brought from Lebanon, and planted by the late Earl himself. There 
is also a tree planted by the late King Edward VII., when Prince 
of Wales, and two firs, which were planted by Queen Victoria and 
the Princess Beatrice in 1877, when on a visit to Hughenden. 

Hard by lies Hughenden Wood, with the " German Forest," 
the former one of the largest in Buckinghamshire, and it may be 
added that the scenery uniformly reveals the county at its best and 
loveliest. 

178 



An obelisk on a hill between the two Tinkers' Woods was 
erected to the memory of Isaac Disraeli, the grandfather of Mr. 
Coningsby Disraeli, by the Viscountess Beaconsfield. 

After the death of the Earl of Beaconsfield, the little church of 
St. Michael and All Angels that stands within the park, was enriched 
by several fine stained windows, and other costly gifts, including a 
monument in the chancel, in white Sicilian marble, near the late 
Earl's pew, erected by Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 

TO THE DEAR AND HONOURED MEMORY 
OF BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF BEACONS- 
FIELD, this memorial is placed by his grateful and 
affectionate Sovereign and friend, Victoria, R.I., 
' l King's love him that speaketh right," Proverbs 
xvi. 13. Feb. 27th, 1882." 

The mural paintings in this church are among the finest 
specimens of ecclesiastical art. Originally of Norman date, the 
edifice was almost entirely rebuilt in 1874, with the exception of 
the chancel arch, South doorway, and the so-called De Montfort 
chapel which contains some interesting monuments, including the 
Hughenden Crusader, for it is generally supposed that some of the 
great Earl Simon's descendants lived at Hughenden, in a house 
called Wreck Hall, under an assumed name, after the disastrous 
issue of the Barons' War at the end of Henry Ill's reign. 

Mr. Coningsby Disraeli is one of the chief landowners in the 
district ; his heir presumptive is his sister, Dorothy, the wife of 
Alexander Whitelaw, of Gartshore, a member of the Royal 
Company of Archers, the King's Scottish Body Guard. 

Mr. Disraeli's town residence is 89, Onslow Square, W., and 
the Carlton, Garrick and White's Clubs number him among their 
members. 



179 



i8o 



William Wykeham Tyrwhitt-Dvake. Esq., D.L., J. P. 



Ulilliam Ulpkebam Cpru)l)itt=Drake, esq., 

D.C., 3.P. 



re 



SHARDELOES, the Buckinghamshire seat of Mr. William 
Wykeham Tyrwhitt-Drake, lord of the Manor of Amersham 
and chief landowner, is beautifully situated within a well- 
timbered park of some seven hundred acres, and first came into the 
possession of the Drake family about 1605, through the marriage 
of Joan, the daughter and heiress of William Tothill, (sometime 
the host of Queen Elizabeth, and the recipient of her portrait and 
that of her chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton) with Francis Drake 
of Esher, an ancestor of Mr. W. W. Tyrwhitt-Drake. 

The second son of the late Mr. Thomas Tyrwhitt-Drake by 
his first wife, Julia Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of the late 
John Stratton of Turweston House, Mr. William Wykeham 
Tyrwhitt-Drake was born in 1851. By his marriage with Augusta, 
the third daughter of the late Rev. Herbert Richard Peel, of 
Thornton Hall, he has a son and heir, William, who was born in 
1885. On the death of his elder brother, Thomas William, in 1900, 
Mr. W. W. Tyrwhitt-Drake succeeded to Shardeloes. 

A Justice of the Peace and a Deputy Lieutenant for the 
County, Mr. Tyrwhitt-Drake is the patron of several livings, and 
both St. Mary's Church and the town of Amersham itself, are rich 
in memories of bygone generations of his ancient race. 



181 



182 



John Edward Montague Bradish - Ellames, Esq. 



3obn €dward iflontaguc Bradisb= 

tllamcs, esq. 



£ITTLE Marlow Manor House, the seat of Mrs. Bradish- 
Ellames, dates partly from 1200 but has a modern frontage. 
Standing on the northern bank of the Thames, well laid 
out grounds form pleasing surroundings, and the many noble 
specimens of trees therein contribute in no small measure to 
complete a charming picture. 

Mr. John E. M. Bradish-Ellames is the only son of the late 
Lieut -Colonel William Bradish-Ellames, by his wife, Amy 
Gwendoline, the youngest daughter of the late John Piatt, M.P., of 
Werneth Park, Lancashire, and Carnarvonshire, and was born in 
1896. Colonel Bradish-Ellames died in 1905, when his son was 
barely ten years of age. 

Westhorpe House and Esate, Bucks, also belong to Mr. 
Bradish- Ellames. 

183 



184 



Sir George Herbert Farrar, Bt., D.S.O. 



Sir 6eorge Herbert Farrar, Bt., D.S.O. 



CHICHELEY Hall, near Newport Pagnell, in North Bucks, and 
Bedford Farm, Johannesburg, are the widely apart residences 
of that prominent Member of the first South African Parlia- 
ment, Sir George Herbert Farrar, Chairman of the East Rand 
Proprietory iMines, and sometime leader of the opposition in the 
Legislative Assembly of the Transvaal. 

Born on June 17th, 1859, the son of the late Dr. Charles 
Farrar, of Chatteris in Cambridgeshire, Sir George Farrar was 
educated at the Modern School, Bedford, and in 1892 married Ella 
Mabel, the daughter of the late Dr. Charles William Waylen, of 
the Indian Medical Service, and has issue. 

To none of England's sons did the outbreak of hostilities in 
South Africa afford greater opportunities for demonstrating their 
affection for the Motherland than to Sir George, as Major on the 
Staff of the Colonial Division, and his elder brother, Captain John 
Percy Farrar, in connection with the Kaffrarian Rifles. Both 
rendered willing and valuable service, in recognition of which, they 
received the Distinguished Service Order, being also mentioned in 
despatches, and were the recipients of the Queen's medal with clasps. 

I 



Two years later, Sir George Farrar was created a Knight 
Bachelor, and in ign became a Baronet mainly for his services in 
connection with the formation of the Union of South Africa. 

Formerly amongst the possessions of Tickford Abbey, after 
the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Chicheley Manor was granted 
to Cardinal Wolsey by Henry VIII., and later, by Queen Elizabeth 
to Anthony Cave, whose daughter and heiress, Judith, brought it 
to the Chesters. Her son, Sir Anthony Chester, Kt., of Chicheley, 
was in attendance on Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury Camp, and had 
command of a troop of horse, drawn up to repel the threatened 
Spanish Invasion. In the days of that gallant cavalier, his son, Sir 
Anthony Chester, Bt., Chicheley Hall suffered severely at the hands 
of the Roundheads, so much so that it was pulled down by the 4th 
Baronet, Sir John Chester, at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, and the present imposing brick mansion, with stone 
dressings, erected on the same site, after the style of Hampton 
Court. 

Pleasantly situated within extensive grounds wherein a lake 
of considerable size adds to the charm of its surroundings, 
Chicheley Hall contains many portraits of the Chester family. 
Another interesting feature is an old oak-pannelled wainscotted 
room that appears to belong to an earlier date than the rest of the 
house, and is believed to have formed part of a mansion erected by 
Anthony Cave. On a stout beam over the fireplace is the following 
incription : — 

Cave ne Deum offendas, cave ne proximum laedas 
cave ne tua negligentia familarum deseras, 1550. 

Whilst an additional touch of romance was supplied by the 
discovery of a skeleton concealed within a cupboard on the laundry 
stairs. 

The three storied tower, standing within a short distance of 
the mansion, was erected in 1735 by the 5th Baronet of the Chester 



186 



family, for the purpose of supplying the house with water from a 
spring. 

A noted all-round sportsman, Sir George is still a good man 
to hounds or with a gun, and has in former years several times won 
the Oakley Point to Point Race — open to any Hunt — and shares 
to the full the innate love of an Englishman for a horse, and the 
inborn interest in racing. He has been for many years a breeder 
of high class racing stock at Chicheley and has himself some horses 
in training at Newmarket. During the last few years he has paid 
great attention to the breeding of pedigree cattle and his herd of 
pure Prieslands and Red Lincolns at his estate near Johannesburg 
and at his farms at Standerton and Goovehoep in the Transvaal 
are famous throughout South Africa. He is fast becoming a 
devotee to golf. 

Sir George Farrar is a member of the Carlton Club. 




j 87 



1 88 



Sir Lancelot Aubrey Fletcher, Bt. 



Sir Cancclot Aubrcp-FletclKr, Bt. 



71 S the present representative of the old Aubrey family, through 
^1 the marriage of his great-grandmother, Catherine, the 
daughter of Henry Lintot, of Southwater, Sussex (by his wife 
Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Sir John Aubrey, the third baronet 
of Llantrithyd) with Sir Henry Fletcher, the first Baronet of Clea 
Hall, Cumberland, in 1768, Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher's 
connection with Buckinghamshire is of very ancient date. 

The Fletchers are a well-known family, of north country 
origin, and derive from Henry Fletcher, of Cockermouth Castle, 
who enjoyed the distinction of acting as Guardian to Queen Mary 
of Scots on her journey from Workington. His great-grandson, 
Sir Henry Fletcher' was created a baronet on February 19th 1640, 
and lost his life during that severe Royalist defeat at Rowton 
Heath in 1645. His son, represented Cumberland in Parliament 
from 1 66 1 to 1700, and with the death of the third baronet, Sir 
Henry, unmarried, in 171 2, the first baronetcy came to an end. 

Philip Fletcher, a younger son of Sir Richard Fletcher, knight, 
of Cockermouth, and uncle of Sir Henry Fletcher, 1st Bt. thus 
became the ancestor in the fifth degree of Sir Henry Fletcher, 1st Bt. 



189 



of Clea Hall, whose connection with the East India Company led 
to his being elected a member of its direction, and who continued 
to represent Cumberland in Parliament for 34 years, from 1786 to 
1802. The present baronetcy dates from 1782. And Sir Henry's 
marriage with Elizabeth Lintot, the daughter of Catherine Aubrey 
and her husband, Henry Lintot, was the means of connecting the 
Aubrey and Fletcher families, as before stated. 

The grandson of the first baronet, also Sir Henry Fletcher 
was born on September 18th, 1807, and by his marriage in 1834 with 
Emily Maria, the second daughter of George Browne, sometime a 
member of the Bombay Council, became the father of six sons and 
as many daughters, the eldest, his heir being Henry, afterwards the 
fourth baronet of his line, who was born on September 24th 1835, 
and the fourth, but now eldest surviving son, Sir Lancelot. 

Sir Henry Fletcher, as he then was, succeeded his father in 
1851, and after sitting for Horsham as a Conservative from 1880 to 
1885, from thence on till his death last year was member for Lewes, 
and from 1885-6 acted as parliamentary groom-in-waiting to Her 
Majesty, the late Queen Victoria. A Member of the Privy Council, 
and a Companion of the Bath, Sir Henry rendered military service, 
having joined the 69th Regiment as Ensign in 1853, and was 
Lieutenant of the Grenadier Guards in 1855, whilst later he became 
Colonel commanding the Sussex and Kent Volunteers Infantry 
Brigade. 

On May 10th 1859, he married Agnes, the youngest daughter 
of Colonel Sir John Morrillyon Wilson, C.B., K.H., of the Royal 
Chelsea Hospital, who survives him. And there being no issue of 
the marriage, on his death on May 19th 1910, Sir Henry Aubrey- 
Fletcher, as he became after 1903, was succeeded by his brother, Sir 
Lancelot, who on June 23rd of the same year, assumed the 
additional name of Aubrey by royal license. 

Born on March 13th 1846, Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher was 



190 



admitted a solicitor in 1869 ; he has been twice married, his first 
wife being Gertrude Isabella, the third daughter of the late John 
Howell, of Hampstead, who died in 1878, having had issue, two 
years previously, an infant son, Lancelot Henry, who only survived 
his birth five days. On April 18th 1882, Sir Lancelot married 
Emily Harriet, the daughter of the late Rev. Nugent Wade, M.A., 
Canon of Bristol. A son, Henry Lancelot, now a Lieutenant in the 
Grenadier Guards, and a Member of the Royal Victorian Order 
was born in 1887, subsequent to the birth of a daughter, Kathleen 
Margaret, in 1884. 

The heavy loss that Sir Lancelot has sustained by the death 
of Lady Aubrey-Fletcher at Ellesborough Manor in April last 
evoked widespread regret and sympathy from the inhabitants of 
Chilton, Dorton, Oakley, Boarstall and the neighbouring villages. 

Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher is the patron of seven livings, 
lord of the manors of Boarstall, Chilton, Dorton, Brill and Oakley, 
and chief landowner of that district. 

Dorton House, Chilton House, and Ellesborough Manor in 
Buckinghamshire, Llantrithyd in Glamorganshire, and Clea Hall, 
in Cumberland, are his chief residences. 

Sir Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher is a member of the Union 
Club. 



191 



ig2 



John Bevill Fortescue, Esq., D.L., /.P., M.A. 



3otoi Beoill Fortescue, €sq. t D.C.,3.p., Ifl.fl. 



BORN on November ist 1850, Mr. John Bevill Fortescue, of 
Boconnoc, Cornwall, and Dropmore, near Maidenhead, is 
the fourth, but only surviving son of the late Hon. George 
Matthew Fortescue, Captain of the 25th Regiment, the second son 
of Hugh, ist Earl Fortescue (by his wife, Hester, the daughter of 
the Rt. Hon. George Grenville, and sister of George, first Marquess 
of Buckingham), and brother of Hugh, the 2nd Earl of that name. 
The latter, as well as his brother, Captain Fortescue, the father of 
the subject of the present sketch, formed a matrimonial alliance 
with the Harrowby family, the 2nd Earl Fortescue taking for his 
first wife the Lady Susan Ryder, the eldest daughter of Dudley, the 
ist Earl of Harrowby, whilst his younger brother, Captain 
Fortescue, married the Lady Louisa Elizabeth, that Earl's fifth and 
youngest daughter on February 19th 1833, by whom he had four 
sons, the youngest, Mr. John Bevill Fortescue, succeeding to the 
property on the death of his third brother, Lieut. -Colonel Cyril 
Dudley Fortescue, of the Coldstream Guards, on October 26th 
1890. 



193 



Balliol College, Oxford, afforded Mr. Fortescue his education, 
after graduating as a B.A. in 1873, he became a Master of Arts two 
years later;' and it is not surprising to note, in view of the past 
history of his ancient race, that he entered the Inner Temple as a 
student in 1871, at the age of twenty, and was called to the Bar on 
January 26th 1875, after which he was attached to the Western 
Circuit. It may be noted here that on both sides of his family, Mr. 
Fortescue possesses famous legal ancestors. 

In the days of the House of Lancaster, the sons of that grand 
soldier, Sir John Fortescue, Governor of Meaux, were Henry, the 
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland and Sir John 
Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice of England in 1442, the faithful friend 
of King Henry VI, who shared the exile of Queen Margaret, and 
her son, Prince Edward on the Continent, and during that time 
wrote his famous De Laudibus Legum Angliae for the instruction of 
the ill-fated young son of his Royal Master. To his descendant, 
Lord Clermont, belongs the honour of having collected and printed 
for private circulation in 1869, " The Works of Sir John Fortescue 
novo first collected and arranged, as well as " A History of the Family 
of Fortescue in all its Bvanches, ,, but it must be added that his 
vindication of the English Laws has been translated several times 
into the common tongue. And, on the maternal side, in Sir Dudley 
Ryder, who held the position of Lord Chief Justice of the Court of 
the King's Bench in 1754, Mr. Fortescue claims relationship with 
another legal luminary, Sir Dudley being the great grandfather of 
Lady Louisa Elizabeth Ryder, the mother of the present owner of 
Dropmore. 

Two sons, George Grenville and John Grenville, have been 
the issue of the latter's marriage with Dorothy Augusta, the only 
daughter of Rear Admiral Sir William Legge George Hoste, the 
second baronet of his family, who held the office of Groom in 
Waiting and Aide de Camp to her late Majesty, Queen Victoria. 
This baronetcy dates from 1814, when it was bestowed upon 



94 



Admiral Hoste's father, the gallant Sir William Hoste, the hero of 
the action off Lissa in 1811 and the Capture of Cattaro. 

Mr. John Bevill Fortescue is lord of the beautiful manor of 
Barnham, a Justice of the Peace for both Buckinghamshire and 
Cornwall, and ranks as a Deputy Lieutenant of the latter County, 
for which he acted as High Sheriff in 1S94, ant ^ * s the patron of five 
livings. 

The beauties of far famed Dropmore owe their existence to 
William Wyndham, Lord Grenville, the founder of the famous " All 
the Talents' Ministry, in 1806, who married Anne Pitt, the 
daughter of Lord Camelford, and was first cousin to the younger 
Pitt. 

The present house was erected by him, on the site of a mere 
cottage, and the beautiful six hundred acres of grounds were rescued 
at the same time from a wild tract of common, and the first tree 
planted, a Cedar of Lebanon, in 1794. Today, the collection of 
Pines is almost unrivalled. A fine avenue of Cedars of Lebanon 
lends a stately dignity to the north west side of the park and 
mansion. There are drooping deodars in company with fine grown 
elms and sturdy oaks, among the latter being a descendant of the 
veritable tree at Boscabel, which is furnished with an inscription 
to the effect that it has been preserved in honour of the Restoration 
of the Monarchy in the abstract, and must not be taken as a 
treasured memento of the return of King Charles II to the throne 
of his fathers. Here, too, is another oak, said to have been planted 
by Princess Elizabeth, and magnificent specimens of the Pinus 
Douglasii and Pinus Nobilis, with many other conifers. 

The western side of the park gains an additional charm from 
an ornamental piece of water over two acres in extent, and on its 
banks, a quaint old arbour, formed of one of the stone alcoves from 
old London Bridge, calls for notice, whilst the exquisite Italian 
garden nearly two hundred feet long on the north west side of the 



J 95 



house, as well as a gigantic laurel hedge to the north, standing 
sentinel as it were to parterres of the most beautiful flowers, and 
the handsome white marble fountain in their midst, all contribute 
their share towards the peerless beauty of this exquisite retreat. 

In 183 1, three years before Lord Grenville's death, which 
occurred at Dropmore in 1834, when the title became extinct, the 
poet, Samuel Rogers, recorded his enjoyment of a visit to that 
nobleman's country seat in the following lines : — 

Grenville, to thee my gratitude is due 

For many an hour of studious musing here, 
For many a day dream, such as hovered round 

Hafiz or Sadi ; through the golden East, 
Search where we would, no fairer bowers than these, 

Thine own creation ; where, called forth by thee, 
" Flowers worthy of Paradise, with rich inlay 

Broider the ground," and every mountain pine, 
Elsewhere unseen (his birthplace in the clouds, 

His kindred sweeping with Majestic march 
From cliff to cliff along the snowy ridge 

Of Caucasus, or nearer yet the moon) 
Breathes heavenly music — 

Indeed in addition to the unrivalled collection of Pines, Lord 
Grenville's chief pleasure was in planning walks and planting 
shrubs and other trees, a work that, after his death, was faithfully 
carried on by his widow, Lady Grenville, until her death in 1864. 

As regards the early history of the property, a large part of 
what is now the Dropmore estate was included in the manor of 
Hitcham (the rest belonging to Burnham), which, in the time of 
Henry VIII was held by Lord Chief Justice Baldwin, whose grand 
daughter brought it to her husband, Nicholas Clerke, whose son, 
Sir William Clerke, had the honour of a visit from Oueen Elizabeth 
in 1602, on which occasion it is recorded that " he so behaved 
himself that he pleased nobody, but gave occasion to have his 
vanity and misery spread far and wide." Later, the estate was 
acquired by Dr. John Friend, who lies buried in Hitcham church, 

196 



and whose partiality to long epitaphs evoked Pope's well-known 
epigram : — 

Friend, for your epitaphs I'm grieved, 

Where still so much is said ; 
One half will never be believed, 

The other never read. 

And it was from the descendants of the long winded Doctor 
that Lord Grenville purchased the property in 1792. 

The mansion contains many fine apartments, the central 
gallery, or Library, is especially noteworthy, the adjoining room 
having been used by Lord Grenville as his own private retreat. 

Another feature of absorbing interest is the collection of 
family portraits, including one of the Rt. Hon. William Pitt, from 
whicn Nollekins subsequently completed the bust taken from a 
death mask of the famous statesman, that also finds place at 
Dropmore, together with another bust of his father, the great Lord 
Chatham, the Rt. Hon. George Grenville, and many others of his 
family. 

The modern church of St. Anne, dating from 1866, owes its 
transept, erected in 1877, to the generosity of Lady Louisa Lortescue, 
who presented it as a memorial of her husband, Mr. John Bevill 
Fortescue's father, the Hon. George Matthew Fortescue, who died 
on January 24th of that year. Lady Louisa Fortescue's death 
occurred in 1899. The exquisite font of English and foreign 
marbles was presented in memory of Lady Grenville, as well as 
three beautiful stained windows. 

Mr. John Bevill Fortescue's town residence is 48 Berkeley 
Square, \\\, and he is a member of the Carlton, Travellers, Oxford 
and Cambridge and St. James' Clubs. 



197 



i g8 



Lieut. -Colonel Liebert Edward Good all, D.L., J. P. 



Cieut.=ColoiK| Cicbcrt Cdioard 6oodall, D.C., 

3P. 



IN Dinton Hall, that picturesquely situated red brick, partly 
Jacobean mansion, some six miles from Aylesbury, surrounded 
by sweet, old fashioned herbaceous gardens, the present lord 
of the manor of the same name, Lieut. -Colonel Liebert Edward 
Goodall holds many links with an historic past, 

It is even said that some of the carved stone work in the 
cellar of the house dates from the time of Edward the Confessor. 
The manor itself was among the Buckinghamshire estates held by 
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux after the Conquest, and upon his disgrace, 
Dinnington, Dunnington, or Donyngton, as it is variously written, 
passed to the Monchensys, and subsequently to the Verneys. 

According to some authorities, the Hall was rebuilt, whilst 
others state that it was "restored' about 1500 by William of 
Warham, Archbisliop of Canterbury in the time of King Henry VII., 
one of the most trusted adherents of that cautious monarch, with 
whom he was in high favour. His arms, together with those of 
the King, may be seen on the stained glass windows of the hall. 
Later, it passed to the Maynes, and continued in their possession 
for some two hundred years. At the time of the execution of 

199 



King Charles I., Dinton was held by Simon Mayne, one of the 
judges who affixed his seal and signature to his sovereign's death 
warrant and has thus gone down to posterity with the 
unenviable title of "Regicide" attached to his name. Twelve 
years later came the Restoration, when this member of the Mayne 
family was actually in residence at Dinton Hall, having contrived 
a fairlv secure hiding place under the roof, to which he obtained 
access through the stairs, and made the rest of his secret journey 
on a species of inclined plane, lined with felt. Face to face with 
a life of future poverty, for his estates were to be forfeited, and 
with the knowledge of his previous guilt heavy on him, he seems 
to have had a further difficulty to contend with in the shape of a 
lack of supplies, that finally compelled him to surrender, and after 
a trial at Old Bailey, was committed to the Tower. His death 
occurred the following year, 1661, and his body was then removed, 
and buried in Dinton Church. 

His son, also Simon, was finally allowed to resume residence 
at Dinton, and his son, another Simon, sold the estate in 1727 to 
John Vanhattem, the son of Liebert Vanhattem, a member of the 
Dutch Fleet, and husband of the daughter of Admiral De Ruyter, 
the would-be sweeper of the Thames. 

The Vanhattems made their first acquaintance with England 
in company of the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III. and 
the grandson of Liebert Vanhattem was Sir John Vanhattem, 
knighted by King George III., who effected many improvements on 
his English property, including the introduction of sashed 
windows to the southern front of the Hall. Sir John, too, was 
deeply interested in the historical side of his English possessions, 
and in 1772 began the " Dinton Album", which is a statistical 
account of the parish compiled from such well-known authorities 
as the historian, Browne Willis and others, and ornamented with 
paintings by his son-in-law, the Rev. William Goodall. This 
gentleman married Sir John's only daughter and heiress, Rebecca, 

2oo 



in 1788, who thus brought Dinton into her husband's family. 
Further traces of Sir John's industry mav be found in the ruins of 
a small building engirdled with trees, called " Dinton Castle", 
which he erected about 1765, intending it for use as a summer 
house. 

By her husband, the Rev. William Goodall, Vicar of 
Mearsham, Sir John's daughter, Rebecca, had sixteen children, of 
whom was James Joseph, born on January 4th 1800, and afterwards 
Vicar of Brornham and Oakley in Bedfordshire for upwards of 
forty years, and Rural Dean, who married Elizabeth, the daughter 
and heiress of William Boon in Northamptonshire, by whom he 
had issue, two sons and one daughter. The elder, William 
George Alexander, a barrister of the Inner Temple, died in 1876, 
and the Dinton property thus came to the second son, now Lieut. - 
Colonel Liebert Edward Goodall, born in 1842, who is a public 
school man, having received his education from that noted centre 
of learning and training ground of famous men, Rugby. 

On October 24th 1876, Colonel Goodall married Philadelphia 
Bruce, sister of the late Colonel Edward Dyke Lee, of Hartwell, 
and thus further cemented his ties with Buckinghamshire, by 
uniting his fortunes with those of this well-known family, who 
have held Hartwell for many years. 

Ever mindful of his duties as a citizen, Colonel Goodall is a 
Magistrate, a Deputy Lieutenant, and a County Alderman for 
Buckinghamshire, and was formerly a Captain in the 59th 
Regiment, and a Major and Hon. Lieut. -Colonel of the 4th 
Battalion of the Gloucestershires. 

Another well known member of this family was the Rev. 
Joseph J. Goodall, D.D., the younger brother of the Rev. William 
Goodall, who was Provost of Eton for no less than thirty four 
years, and died in 1840, beloved by all who knew him. 



201 



Among other treasures at Dinton are a basket hilted sword, 
used by Cromwell at the battle of Naseby, a misshapen shoe 
consisting of a thousand patches, more or less, belonging to the 
" Dinton Hermit", formerly one John Bigg, clerk to the Regicide 
Simon Mayne, who afterwards adopted the simple life, and lived 
in a cave in the vicinity. It may be added that he enjoyed the 
local reputation of having been the actual executioner of Charles I., 
although the accuracy of that statement cannot be determined. 
In addition to many good portraits and paintings, there is a fine 
collection of fossils, shells, coins and other relics, as well as much 
armour and three brass models of ancient guns. 

It was about 1852 when the Rev. James Joseph Goodall in 
conducting some excavations near the so-called "Dinton Castle", 
came upon several skeletons lying close to the foundations of the 
ruin, as well as a fine specimen of a Saxon drinking glass, and a 
glass bottle of the time of Edward II. Some ancient spears were 
also found in the same spot, one of them still transfixing the neck 
of one of the skeletons, in eloquent witness of a tragedy long since 
buried in the past. 

The Church of St. Peter and Paul at Dinton, a stone 
building in the Early English style is said to have served as a 
model for the Cathedral at Lund, which w^s built about 1072 by 
Donatus, an Anglo Saxon architect, and the resemblance between 
the two edifices has been commented on by Marryat in his " One 
Year in Sweden". 

Two antique flagons, forming part of the Dinton Church 
Communion plate, are especially prized, as the gift of Sir John 
Vanhattem, in 1772. 

Lieut. -Colonel Goodall is a member of the Constitutional 
Naval and Military and Carlton Clubs. 



202 



IflOKHINUIH 
ill. CLASS 



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